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Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 ____________________________________
FORM 10-Q
____________________________________ 
(Mark One)
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to             .
Commission File No. 000-22513
____________________________________
AMAZON.COM, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 ____________________________________
Delaware
 
91-1646860
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
410 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109-5210
(206) 266-1000
(Address and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 ____________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
x
Accelerated filer
 
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
485,226,904 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding as of April 18, 2018
 


Table of Contents

AMAZON.COM, INC.
FORM 10-Q
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2018
INDEX
 
 
 
Page
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.


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Table of Contents

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.
Financial Statements
AMAZON.COM, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in millions)
(unaudited)
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
Twelve Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH, BEGINNING OF PERIOD
$
19,934

 
$
21,856

 
$
12,781

 
$
16,301

OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
724

 
1,629

 
2,583

 
3,938

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash from operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation of property and equipment, including internal-use software and website development, and other amortization, including capitalized content costs
2,435

 
3,671

 
8,725

 
12,714

Stock-based compensation
792

 
1,182

 
3,223

 
4,605

Other operating expense, net
42

 
56

 
157

 
216

Other expense (income), net
(40
)
 
(184
)
 
(10
)
 
(437
)
Deferred income taxes
(22
)
 
141

 
(279
)
 
134

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inventories
947

 
2,220

 
(1,249
)
 
(2,309
)
Accounts receivable, net and other
965

 
1,029

 
(2,872
)
 
(4,716
)
Accounts payable
(6,865
)
 
(10,216
)
 
3,935

 
3,749

Accrued expenses and other
(1,404
)
 
(2,225
)
 
1,277

 
(538
)
Unearned revenue
807

 
906

 
2,057

 
838

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
(1,619
)
 
(1,791
)
 
17,547

 
18,194

INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment, including internal-use software and website development
(2,148
)
 
(3,098
)
 
(8,539
)
 
(12,905
)
Proceeds from property and equipment incentives
287

 
371

 
1,122

 
1,981

Acquisitions, net of cash acquired, and other
(45
)
 
(13
)
 
(146
)
 
(13,939
)
Sales and maturities of marketable securities
1,910

 
2,677

 
5,350

 
10,444

Purchases of marketable securities
(1,354
)
 
(470
)
 
(7,997
)
 
(11,846
)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
(1,350
)
 
(533
)
 
(10,210
)
 
(26,265
)
FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from long-term debt and other
21

 
125

 
630

 
16,332

Repayments of long-term debt and other
(40
)
 
(202
)
 
(192
)
 
(1,463
)
Principal repayments of capital lease obligations
(832
)
 
(2,015
)
 
(3,891
)
 
(5,981
)
Principal repayments of finance lease obligations
(37
)
 
(72
)
 
(155
)
 
(235
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
(888
)
 
(2,164
)
 
(3,608
)
 
8,653

Foreign currency effect on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
224

 
248

 
(209
)
 
733

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
(3,633
)
 
(4,240
)
 
3,520

 
1,315

CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH, END OF PERIOD
$
16,301

 
$
17,616

 
$
16,301

 
$
17,616

SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash paid for interest on long-term debt
$
4

 
$
282

 
$
292

 
$
607

Cash paid for interest on capital and finance lease obligations
61

 
129

 
220

 
387

Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds
246

 
513

 
520

 
1,224

Property and equipment acquired under capital leases
1,888

 
2,270

 
6,717

 
10,020

Property and equipment acquired under build-to-suit leases
1,200

 
741

 
2,057

 
3,081

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

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Table of Contents

AMAZON.COM, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in millions, except per share data)
(unaudited)
 
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Net product sales
$
23,734

 
$
31,605

Net service sales
11,980

 
19,437

Total net sales
35,714

 
51,042

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
Cost of sales
22,440

 
30,735

Fulfillment
4,697

 
7,792

Marketing
1,920

 
2,699

Technology and content
4,813

 
6,759

General and administrative
795

 
1,067

Other operating expense, net
44

 
63

Total operating expenses
34,709

 
49,115

Operating income
1,005

 
1,927

Interest income
39

 
80

Interest expense
(139
)
 
(330
)
Other income (expense), net
48

 
239

Total non-operating income (expense)
(52
)
 
(11
)
Income before income taxes
953

 
1,916

Provision for income taxes
(229
)
 
(287
)
Net income
$
724

 
$
1,629

Basic earnings per share
$
1.52

 
$
3.36

Diluted earnings per share
$
1.48

 
$
3.27

Weighted-average shares used in computation of earnings per share:
 
 
 
Basic
477

 
484

Diluted
490

 
498

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


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Table of Contents

AMAZON.COM, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in millions)
(unaudited)
 
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Net income
$
724

 
$
1,629

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax of $(13) and $21
187

 
59

Net change in unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale debt securities:
 
 
 
Unrealized gains (losses), net of tax of $(1) and $9
(2
)
 
(44
)
Reclassification adjustment for losses (gains) included in “Other income (expense), net,” net of tax of $0 and $0
3

 
2

Net unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale debt securities
1

 
(42
)
Total other comprehensive income (loss)
188

 
17

Comprehensive income
$
912

 
$
1,646

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


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Table of Contents

AMAZON.COM, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except per share data)
 
 
December 31, 2017
 
March 31, 2018
 

 
(unaudited)
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
20,522

 
$
16,676

Marketable securities
10,464

 
8,287

Inventories
16,047

 
13,840

Accounts receivable, net and other
13,164

 
12,026

Total current assets
60,197

 
50,829

Property and equipment, net
48,866

 
52,331

Goodwill
13,350

 
13,388

Other assets
8,897

 
9,814

Total assets
$
131,310

 
$
126,362

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
34,616

 
$
25,172

Accrued expenses and other
18,170

 
16,691

Unearned revenue
5,097

 
6,182

Total current liabilities
57,883

 
48,045

Long-term debt
24,743

 
24,640

Other long-term liabilities
20,975

 
22,214

Commitments and contingencies (Note 3)


 


Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value:
 
 
 
Authorized shares — 500
 
 
 
Issued and outstanding shares — none

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value:
 
 
 
Authorized shares — 5,000
 
 
 
Issued shares — 507 and 508
 
 
 
Outstanding shares — 484 and 485
5

 
5

Treasury stock, at cost
(1,837
)
 
(1,837
)
Additional paid-in capital
21,389

 
22,563

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(484
)
 
(467
)
Retained earnings
8,636

 
11,199

Total stockholders’ equity
27,709

 
31,463

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
131,310

 
$
126,362

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


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Table of Contents

AMAZON.COM, INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)

Note 1 — ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Unaudited Interim Financial Information
We have prepared the accompanying consolidated financial statements pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for interim financial reporting. These consolidated financial statements are unaudited and, in our opinion, include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments and accruals necessary for a fair presentation of our consolidated balance sheets, operating results, and cash flows for the periods presented. Operating results for the periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for 2018 due to seasonal and other factors. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) have been omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. These consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in Item 8 of Part II, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Prior Period Reclassifications
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation, including the addition of restricted cash to cash and cash equivalents on the consolidated statements of cash flows as a result of the adoption of new accounting guidance.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Amazon.com, Inc., its wholly-owned subsidiaries, and those entities in which we have a variable interest and of which we are the primary beneficiary, including certain entities in India and China and that support our seller lending financing activities (collectively, the “Company”). Intercompany balances and transactions between consolidated entities are eliminated. The financial results of Whole Foods Market, Inc. (“Whole Foods Market”) have been included in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition on August 28, 2017.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Estimates are used for, but not limited to, income taxes, commitments and contingencies, valuation of acquired intangibles and goodwill, stock-based compensation forfeiture rates, vendor funding, and inventory valuation. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated using our weighted-average outstanding common shares. Diluted earnings per share is calculated using our weighted-average outstanding common shares including the dilutive effect of stock awards as determined under the treasury stock method. In periods when we have a net loss, stock awards are excluded from our calculation of earnings per share as their inclusion would have an antidilutive effect.
The following table shows the calculation of diluted shares (in millions):
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Shares used in computation of basic earnings per share
477

 
484

Total dilutive effect of outstanding stock awards
13

 
14

Shares used in computation of diluted earnings per share
490

 
498


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Table of Contents

Revenue
Revenue is measured based on the amount of consideration that we expect to receive, reduced by estimates for return allowances, promotional discounts, and rebates. Revenue also excludes any amounts collected on behalf of third parties, including sales and indirect taxes. In arrangements where we have multiple performance obligations, the transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation using the relative stand-alone selling price. We generally determine stand-alone selling prices based on the prices charged to customers or using expected cost plus a margin.
A description of our principal revenue generating activities is as follows:
Retail sales - We offer consumer products through our online and physical stores. Revenue is recognized when control of the goods is transferred to the customer, which generally occurs upon our delivery to the carrier or the customer.
Third-party seller services - We offer programs that enable sellers to sell their products on our websites and their own branded websites, and fulfill orders through us. We are not the seller of record in these transactions. The commissions and any related fulfillment and shipping fees we earn from these arrangements are recognized as the services are rendered.
Subscription services - Our subscription sales include fees associated with Amazon Prime memberships and access to content including audiobooks, e-books, digital video, digital music, and other non-AWS subscription services. Prime memberships provide our customers with access to an evolving suite of benefits that represent a single stand-ready obligation. Subscriptions are paid for at the time of or in advance of delivering the services. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized over the subscription period.
AWS - Our AWS sales arrangements include global sales of compute, storage, database, and other service offerings. Revenue is allocated to the services provided based on stand-alone selling prices and is recognized as the services are rendered. Sales commissions we pay in connection with contracts that exceed one year are capitalized and amortized over the contract term.
Other - Other revenue primarily includes sales of advertising services and is recognized as the services are rendered.
Return Allowances
Return allowances, which reduce revenue and cost of sales, are estimated using historical experience. Liabilities for return allowances are included in “Accrued expenses and other” and were $468 million and $349 million as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018. Included in “Inventories” on our consolidated balance sheets are assets totaling $406 million and $259 million as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, for the rights to recover products from customers associated with our liabilities for return allowances.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales primarily consists of the purchase price of consumer products, digital media content costs, including video and music, packaging supplies, sortation and delivery centers and related equipment costs, and inbound and outbound shipping costs, including where we are the transportation service provider. Shipping costs to receive products from our suppliers are included in our inventory, and recognized as cost of sales upon sale of products to our customers. Payment processing and related transaction costs, including those associated with seller transactions, are classified in “Fulfillment” on our consolidated statements of operations.
Vendor Agreements
We have agreements with our vendors to receive funds primarily for cooperative marketing efforts, promotions, incentives, and volume rebates. We generally consider these amounts received from vendors to be a reduction of the prices we pay for their goods, including property and equipment, or services, and are recorded as a reduction of the cost of inventory, cost of services, or cost of property and equipment. Volume rebates typically depend on reaching minimum purchase thresholds. We evaluate the likelihood of reaching purchase thresholds using past experience and current year forecasts. When volume rebates can be reasonably estimated, we record a portion of the rebate as we make progress towards the purchase threshold.
Accounts Receivable, Net and Other
Included in “Accounts receivable, net and other” on our consolidated balance sheets are amounts primarily related to customers, sellers, and vendors. As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, customer receivables, net, were $6.4 billion and $6.3 billion, seller receivables, net, were $692 million and $610 million, and vendor receivables, net, were $2.6 billion and $1.7 billion. Seller receivables are amounts due from sellers related to our seller lending program, which provides funding to sellers primarily to procure inventory.

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Table of Contents

We estimate losses on receivables based on known troubled accounts and historical experience of losses incurred. Receivables are considered impaired and written-off when it is probable that all contractual payments due will not be collected in accordance with the terms of the agreement. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $348 million and $416 million as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.
Unearned Revenue
Unearned revenue is recorded when payments are received or due in advance of performing our service obligations and is recognized over the service period. Unearned revenue primarily relates to prepayments of Amazon Prime memberships and AWS services. Our total unearned revenue as of December 31, 2017 was $6.1 billion, of which $2.3 billion was recognized as revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2018, including adjustments related to the new revenue recognition guidance. Included in “Other long-term liabilities” on our consolidated balance sheets was $1.0 billion and $1.1 billion of unearned revenue as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.
Additionally, we have performance obligations, primarily related to AWS, associated with commitments in customer contracts for future services that have not yet been recognized in our financial statements. For contracts with original terms that exceed one year, the amount of revenue not yet recognized was $12.4 billion as of March 31, 2018. The weighted average remaining life of these contracts is 3.2 years. However, the timing of revenue recognition is largely driven by customer activity, some of which can extend beyond the original contractual term.
Accrued Expenses and Other
Included in “Accrued expenses and other” on our consolidated balance sheets are amounts primarily related to unredeemed gift cards, customer liabilities, leases and asset retirement obligations, current debt, acquired digital media content, and other operating expenses.
As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, our liabilities for unredeemed gift cards were $3.0 billion and $1.7 billion. We reduce the liability for a gift card when redeemed by a customer. The portion of gift cards that we do not expect to be redeemed is recognized based on customer usage patterns.
Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted
In May 2014, the FASB issued an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) amending revenue recognition guidance and requiring more detailed disclosures to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. We adopted this ASU on January 1, 2018 for all revenue contracts with our customers using the modified retrospective approach and increased retained earnings by approximately $650 million. The adjustment primarily relates to the unredeemed portion of our gift cards, which are now recognized over the expected customer usage period rather than waiting until gift cards expire or when the likelihood of redemption becomes remote. Other changes relate to our accounting for revenue related to Amazon-branded electronic devices sold through retailers, which are now recognized upon sale to the retailer rather than to end customers, and the recognition and classification of Amazon Prime memberships, which are now accounted for as a single performance obligation and recognized ratably over the membership period as service sales. Previously, Prime memberships were considered to be arrangements with multiple deliverables and were allocated among product sales and service sales. Other changes relate primarily to the presentation of revenue. Certain advertising services are now classified as revenue rather than a reduction in cost of sales, and sales of apps, in-app content, and certain digital media content are presented on a net basis.
The impact of applying this ASU for the three months ended March 31, 2018 primarily resulted in a decrease in product sales and an increase in service sales driven by a reclassification of Prime membership fees of approximately $845 million, which are now accounted for as a single performance obligation and recognized over the membership period. Service sales also increased by approximately $560 million due to the reclassification of certain advertising services that were previously classified as a reduction of cost of sales.
In January 2016, the FASB issued an ASU that updates certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. Under this ASU, certain equity investments will be measured at fair value with changes recognized in net income. We adopted this ASU in Q1 2018 with no material impact to our consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued an ASU amending the accounting for income taxes. The new guidance requires the recognition of the income tax consequences of an intercompany asset transfer, other than transfers of inventory, when the transfer occurs. For intercompany transfers of inventory, the income tax effects will continue to be deferred until the inventory has been sold to a third party. We adopted this ASU in Q1 2018 with an increase of approximately $250 million to retained earnings and deferred tax assets net of valuation allowances.

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Table of Contents

In November 2016, the FASB issued an ASU amending the presentation of restricted cash within the consolidated statements of cash flows. The new guidance requires that restricted cash be added to cash and cash equivalents on the consolidated statements of cash flows. We adopted this ASU in Q1 2018 on a retrospective basis with the following impacts to our consolidated statements of cash flows (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2017
Previously Reported
 
Adjustments
 
As Revised
Operating activities
$
(1,590
)
 
$
(29
)
 
$
(1,619
)
Investing activities
(1,616
)
 
266

 
(1,350
)
Financing activities
(914
)
 
26

 
(888
)
Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
$
(4,120
)
 
$
263

 
$
(3,857
)
Twelve Months Ended March 31, 2017
Previously Reported
 
Adjustments
 
As Revised
Operating activities
$
17,634

 
$
(87
)
 
$
17,547

Investing activities
(10,798
)
 
588

 
(10,210
)
Financing activities
(3,657
)
 
49

 
(3,608
)
Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
$
3,179

 
$
550

 
$
3,729

Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued an ASU amending the accounting for leases. The new guidance requires the recognition of lease assets and liabilities for operating leases with terms of more than 12 months, in addition to those currently recorded, on our consolidated balance sheets. Presentation of leases within the consolidated statements of operations and consolidated statements of cash flows will be generally consistent with the current lease accounting guidance. The ASU is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We plan to adopt this ASU beginning in Q1 2019. We are continuing to evaluate the impact and expect the ASU will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, primarily to the consolidated balance sheets and related disclosures.
Note 2 — CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, RESTRICTED CASH, AND MARKETABLE SECURITIES
As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, our cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and marketable securities primarily consisted of cash, U.S. and foreign government and agency securities, AAA-rated money market funds, and other investment grade securities. Cash equivalents and marketable securities are recorded at fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. To increase the comparability of fair value measures, the following hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation methodologies used to measure fair value:
Level 1—Valuations based on quoted prices for identical assets and liabilities in active markets.
Level 2—Valuations based on observable inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3—Valuations based on unobservable inputs reflecting our own assumptions, consistent with reasonably available assumptions made by other market participants. These valuations require significant judgment.
We measure the fair value of money market funds and equity securities based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. All other financial instruments were valued either based on recent trades of securities in inactive markets or based on quoted market prices of similar instruments and other significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data. We did not hold any cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, or marketable securities categorized as Level 3 assets as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.

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Table of Contents

The following table summarizes, by major security type, our cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and marketable securities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and are categorized using the fair value hierarchy (in millions):
 
December 31, 2017
 
March 31, 2018
  
Total
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Total
Estimated
Fair Value
Cash
$
9,982

 
$
8,706

 
$

 
$

 
$
8,706

Level 1 securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market funds
11,343

 
8,663

 

 

 
8,663

Equity securities
53

 
23

 
54

 

 
77

Level 2 securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign government and agency securities
620

 
421

 

 
(1
)
 
420

U.S. government and agency securities
4,823

 
3,557

 
1

 
(25
)
 
3,533

Corporate debt securities
4,257

 
3,412

 

 
(19
)
 
3,393

Asset-backed securities
905

 
803

 

 
(8
)
 
795

Other fixed income securities
338

 
285

 

 
(2
)
 
283

Equity securities

 
28

 
5

 

 
33

 
$
32,321

 
$
25,898

 
$
60


$
(55
)
 
$
25,903

Less: Restricted cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (1)
(1,335
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(940
)
Total cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities
$
30,986

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
24,963

___________________
(1)
We are required to pledge or otherwise restrict a portion of our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities as collateral for real estate leases, amounts due to third-party sellers in certain jurisdictions, debt, and standby and trade letters of credit. We classify cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities with use restrictions of less than twelve months as “Accounts receivable, net and other” and of twelve months or longer as non-current “Other assets” on our consolidated balance sheets. See “Note 3 — Commitments and Contingencies.”
The following table summarizes the contractual maturities of our cash equivalents and marketable fixed-income securities as of March 31, 2018 (in millions):
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Estimated
Fair Value
Due within one year
$
12,969

 
$
12,960

Due after one year through five years
3,434

 
3,400

Due after five years through ten years
248

 
245

Due after ten years
490

 
482

Total
$
17,141

 
$
17,087

Actual maturities may differ from the contractual maturities because borrowers may have certain prepayment conditions.
We also hold equity warrant assets giving us the right to acquire stock of other companies. As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, these warrants had a fair value of $441 million and $497 million, and are recorded within “Other assets” on our consolidated balance sheets. The related gain (loss) recorded in “Other income (expense), net” was $15 million and $45 million in Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. These assets are primarily classified as Level 2 assets.

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The following table provides a reconciliation of the amount of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets to the total of the same such amounts shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows (in millions):
 
December 31, 2017
 
March 31, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents
$
20,522

 
$
16,676

Restricted cash included in accounts receivable, net and other
1,329

 
935

Restricted cash included in other assets
5

 
5

Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows
$
21,856

 
$
17,616


Note 3 — COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Commitments
We have entered into non-cancellable operating, capital, and finance leases for equipment and office, fulfillment, sortation, delivery, data center, physical store, and renewable energy facilities. Rental expense under operating lease agreements was $411 million and $791 million for Q1 2017 and Q1 2018.
The following summarizes our principal contractual commitments, excluding open orders for purchases that support normal operations and are generally cancellable, as of March 31, 2018 (in millions): 
 
Nine Months Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
Thereafter
 
Total
Debt principal and interest
$
669

 
$
2,167

 
$
2,075

 
$
1,832

 
$
2,049

 
$
31,768

 
$
40,560

Capital lease obligations, including interest (1)
4,571

 
5,584

 
3,385

 
794

 
339

 
580

 
15,253

Finance lease obligations, including interest (2)
347

 
473

 
482

 
491

 
493

 
4,095

 
6,381

Operating leases
1,977

 
2,549

 
2,426

 
2,191

 
1,924

 
12,442

 
23,509

Unconditional purchase obligations (3)
2,685

 
3,607

 
3,241

 
3,066

 
2,965

 
7,956

 
23,520

Other commitments (4) (5)
1,469

 
1,280

 
849

 
640

 
488

 
5,265

 
9,991

Total commitments
$
11,718

 
$
15,660

 
$
12,458

 
$
9,014

 
$
8,258

 
$
62,106

 
$
119,214

___________________
(1)
Excluding interest, current capital lease obligations of $5.8 billion and $6.2 billion are recorded within “Accrued expenses and other” as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, and $8.4 billion and $8.5 billion are recorded within “Other long-term liabilities” as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.
(2)
Excluding interest, current finance lease obligations of $282 million and $294 million are recorded within “Accrued expenses and other” as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, and $4.7 billion and $4.8 billion are recorded within “Other long-term liabilities” as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.
(3)
Includes unconditional purchase obligations related to certain products offered in our Whole Foods Market stores and long-term agreements to acquire and license digital media content that are not reflected on the consolidated balance sheets. For those digital media content agreements with variable terms, we do not estimate the total obligation beyond any minimum quantities and/or pricing as of the reporting date. Purchase obligations associated with renewal provisions solely at the option of the content provider are included to the extent such commitments are fixed or a minimum amount is specified.
(4)
Includes the estimated timing and amounts of payments for rent and tenant improvements associated with build-to-suit lease arrangements and equipment lease arrangements that have not been placed in service and digital media content liabilities associated with long-term digital media content assets with initial terms greater than one year.
(5)
Excludes $2.6 billion of accrued tax contingencies for which we cannot make a reasonably reliable estimate of the amount and period of payment, if any.
Pledged Assets
As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, we have pledged or otherwise restricted $1.4 billion and $1.0 billion of our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, and certain property and equipment as collateral for real estate leases, amounts due to third-party sellers in certain jurisdictions, debt, and standby and trade letters of credit.

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Other Contingencies
In 2016, we determined that we processed and delivered orders of consumer products for certain individuals and entities located outside Iran covered by the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act or other United States sanctions and export control laws. The consumer products included books, music, other media, apparel, home and kitchen, health and beauty, jewelry, office, consumer electronics, software, lawn and patio, grocery, and automotive products. Our review is ongoing and we have voluntarily reported these orders to the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control and the United States Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security. We intend to cooperate fully with OFAC and BIS with respect to their review, which may result in the imposition of penalties. For additional information, see Item 5 of Part II, “Other Information — Disclosure Pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Exchange Act.”
We are subject to claims related to various indirect taxes (such as sales, value added, consumption, service, and similar taxes), including in jurisdictions in which we already collect and remit such taxes. If the relevant taxing authorities were successfully to pursue these claims, we could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities. For example, in June 2017, the State of South Carolina issued an assessment for uncollected sales and use taxes for the period from January 2016 to March 2016, including interest and penalties. South Carolina is alleging that we should have collected sales and use taxes on transactions by our third-party sellers. We believe the assessment is without merit. If South Carolina or other states were successfully to seek additional adjustments of a similar nature, we could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities. We intend to defend ourselves vigorously in this matter.
Legal Proceedings
The Company is involved from time to time in claims, proceedings, and litigation, including the matters described in Item 8 of Part II, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Note 7 — Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings” of our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K as supplemented by the following:
In December 2014, Smartflash LLC and Smartflash Technologies Limited filed a complaint against Amazon.com, Inc., Amazon.com, LLC, AMZN Mobile, LLC, Amazon Web Services, Inc. and Audible, Inc. for patent infringement in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. The complaint alleges, among other things, that Amazon Appstore, Amazon Instant Video, Amazon Music, Audible Audiobooks, the Amazon Mobile Ad Network, certain Kindle and Fire devices, Kindle e-bookstore, Amazon’s proprietary Android operating system, and the servers involved in operating Amazon Appstore, Amazon Instant Video, Amazon Music, the Fire TV app, Audible Audiobooks, Cloud Drive, Cloud Player, Amazon Web Services, and Amazon Mobile Ad Network infringe seven related U.S. Patents: Nos. 7,334,720; 7,942,317; 8,033,458; 8,061,598; 8,118,221; 8,336,772; and 8,794,516, all entitled “Data Storage and Access Systems.” The complaint seeks an unspecified amount of damages, an injunction, enhanced damages, attorneys’ fees, costs, and interest. In May 2015, the case was stayed until further notice. In March 2017, in an unrelated lawsuit, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit entered judgment invalidating all asserted claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,334,720; 8,118,221; and 8,336,772. In April 2018, in an unrelated lawsuit, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit entered judgment invalidating all asserted claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,942,317; 8,033,458; 8,061,598; and 8,794,516. We dispute the allegations of wrongdoing and intend to defend ourselves vigorously in this matter.
In October 2017, SRC Labs, LLC and Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe filed a complaint for patent infringement against Amazon Web Services, Inc., Amazon.com, Inc., and VADATA, Inc. in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. The complaint alleges, among other things, that certain AWS EC2 Instances infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 6,434,687, entitled “System and method for accelerating web site access and processing utilizing a computer system incorporating reconfigurable processors operating under a single operating system image”; 7,149,867, entitled “System and method of enhancing efficiency and utilization of memory bandwidth in reconfigurable hardware”; 7,225,324 and 7,620,800, both entitled “Multi-adaptive processing systems and techniques for enhancing parallelism and performance of computational functions”; and 9,153,311, entitled “System and method for retaining DRAM data when reprogramming reconfigurable devices with DRAM memory controllers.” The complaint seeks an unspecified amount of damages, enhanced damages, interest, and a compulsory on-going royalty. In February 2018, the Virginia district court transferred the case to the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington. We dispute the allegations of wrongdoing and intend to defend ourselves vigorously in this matter.
The outcomes of our legal proceedings and other contingencies are inherently unpredictable, subject to significant uncertainties, and could be material to our operating results and cash flows for a particular period. In addition, for the matters disclosed above that do not include an estimate of the amount of loss or range of losses, such an estimate is not possible or is immaterial, and we may be unable to estimate the possible loss or range of losses that could potentially result from the application of non-monetary remedies.
See also “Note 7 — Income Taxes.”

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Note 4 — ACQUISITIONS, GOODWILL, AND ACQUIRED INTANGIBLE ASSETS
2018 Acquisition Activity
On April 12, 2018, we acquired Ring Inc. for cash consideration of approximately $900 million, net of cash acquired, to expand our product and service offerings. We are currently in the process of estimating the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed and will include the impact of this acquisition in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2018. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, we also acquired certain other companies for an aggregate purchase price of $39 million, net of cash acquired.
We have completed the purchase price allocation for the Whole Foods Market acquisition as of March 31, 2018 with no material adjustments from those disclosed within our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Note 5 — LONG-TERM DEBT
As of March 31, 2018, we had $24.3 billion of unsecured senior notes outstanding (the “Notes”). As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, the net unamortized discount and debt issuance costs on the Notes was $99 million. We also have other long-term debt with a carrying amount, including the current portion and borrowings under our credit facility, of $692 million and $542 million as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018. The face value of our total long-term debt obligations is as follows (in millions):
 
December 31, 2017
 
March 31, 2018
2.600% Notes due on December 5, 2019 (2)
1,000

 
1,000

1.900% Notes due on August 21, 2020 (3)
1,000

 
1,000

3.300% Notes due on December 5, 2021 (2)
1,000

 
1,000

2.500% Notes due on November 29, 2022 (1)
1,250

 
1,250

2.400% Notes due on February 22, 2023 (3)
1,000

 
1,000

2.800% Notes due on August 22, 2024 (3)
2,000

 
2,000

3.800% Notes due on December 5, 2024 (2)
1,250

 
1,250

5.200% Notes due on December 3, 2025 (4)
1,000

 
1,000

3.150% Notes due on August 22, 2027 (3)
3,500

 
3,500

4.800% Notes due on December 5, 2034 (2)
1,250

 
1,250

3.875% Notes due on August 22, 2037 (3)
2,750

 
2,750

4.950% Notes due on December 5, 2044 (2)
1,500

 
1,500

4.050% Notes due on August 22, 2047 (3)
3,500

 
3,500

4.250% Notes due on August 22, 2057 (3)
2,250

 
2,250

Credit Facility
592

 
489

Other long-term debt
100

 
53

Total debt
24,942

 
24,792

Less current portion of long-term debt
(100
)
 
(53
)
Face value of long-term debt
$
24,842

 
$
24,739

_____________________________
(1)
Issued in November 2012, effective interest rate of the 2022 Notes was 2.66%.
(2)
Issued in December 2014, effective interest rates of the 2019, 2021, 2024, 2034, and 2044 Notes were 2.73%, 3.43%, 3.90%, 4.92%, and 5.11%.
(3)
Issued in August 2017, effective interest rates of the 2020, 2023, 2024, 2027, 2037, 2047, and 2057 Notes were 2.16%, 2.56%, 2.95%, 3.25%, 3.94%, 4.13%, and 4.33%.
(4)
Consists of $872 million of 2025 Notes issued in December 2017 in exchange for notes assumed in connection with the acquisition of Whole Foods Market and $128 million of 2025 Notes issued by Whole Foods Market that did not participate in our December 2017 exchange offer. The effective interest rate of the 2025 Notes was 3.02%.
Interest on the Notes issued in 2012 is payable semi-annually in arrears in May and November. Interest on the Notes issued in 2014 is payable semi-annually in arrears in June and December. Interest on the Notes issued in 2017 is payable semi-annually in arrears in February and August. Interest on the 2025 Notes is payable semi-annually in arrears in June and December. We may redeem the Notes at any time in whole, or from time to time, in part at specified redemption prices. We are

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not subject to any financial covenants under the Notes. The proceeds from the November 2012 and the December 2014 Notes were used for general corporate purposes. The proceeds from the August 2017 Notes were used to fund the consideration for the acquisition of Whole Foods Market, to repay notes due in 2017, and for general corporate purposes. The estimated fair value of the Notes was approximately $25.7 billion and $24.5 billion as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, which is based on quoted prices for our debt as of those dates.
In October 2016, we entered into a $500 million secured revolving credit facility with a lender that is secured by certain seller receivables, which we subsequently increased to $600 million and may from time to time increase in the future subject to lender approval (the “Credit Facility”). The Credit Facility is available for a term of three years, bears interest at the London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”) plus 1.65%, and has a commitment fee of 0.50% on the undrawn portion. There were $592 million and $489 million of borrowings outstanding under the Credit Facility as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, with weighted-average interest rates of 2.7% and 2.8% as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018. As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, we have pledged $686 million and $579 million of our cash and seller receivables as collateral for debt related to our Credit Facility. The estimated fair value of the Credit Facility, which is based on Level 2 inputs, approximated its carrying value as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.
The other debt, including the current portion, had a weighted-average interest rate of 5.8% and 5.0% as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018. We used the net proceeds from the issuance of this debt primarily to fund certain business operations. The estimated fair value of the other long-term debt, which is based on Level 2 inputs, approximated its carrying value as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.
In May 2016, we entered into an unsecured revolving credit facility (the “Credit Agreement”) with a syndicate of lenders that provides us with a borrowing capacity of up to $3.0 billion. The Credit Agreement has a term of three years, but it may be extended for up to three additional one-year terms if approved by the lenders. The initial interest rate applicable to outstanding balances under the Credit Agreement is LIBOR plus 0.60%, with a commitment fee of 0.05% on the undrawn portion of the credit facility, under our current credit ratings. If our credit ratings are downgraded these rates could increase to as much as LIBOR plus 1.00% and 0.09%, respectively. There were no borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018.
Note 6 — STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Stock Repurchase Activity
In February 2016, the Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase up to $5.0 billion of our common stock, with no fixed expiration. There were no repurchases of common stock in Q1 2017 or Q1 2018.
Stock Award Activity
Common shares outstanding plus shares underlying outstanding stock awards totaled 504 million as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018. These totals include all vested and unvested stock awards outstanding, including those awards we estimate will be forfeited. Stock-based compensation expense is as follows (in millions):
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Cost of sales
$
8

 
$
15

Fulfillment
163

 
244

Marketing
94

 
161

Technology and content
441

 
631

General and administrative
86

 
132

Total stock-based compensation expense
$
792

 
$
1,183


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The following table summarizes our restricted stock unit activity for the three months ended March 31, 2018 (in millions):
 
Number of Units
 
Weighted-Average
Grant-Date
Fair Value
Outstanding as of December 31, 2017
20.1

 
$
725

Units granted
0.7

 
1,464

Units vested
(1.1
)
 
440

Units forfeited
(0.6
)
 
750

Outstanding as of March 31, 2018
19.1

 
$
769

Scheduled vesting for outstanding restricted stock units as of March 31, 2018, is as follows (in millions):
 
Nine Months Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
Thereafter
 
Total
Scheduled vesting—restricted stock units
6.0

 
7.2

 
3.7

 
1.8

 
0.2

 
0.2

 
19.1

As of March 31, 2018, there was $6.0 billion of net unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock-based compensation arrangements. This compensation is recognized on an accelerated basis with approximately half of the compensation expected to be expensed in the next twelve months, and has a weighted-average recognition period of 1.1 years. The estimated forfeiture rate as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018 was 28%. Changes in our estimates and assumptions relating to forfeitures may cause us to realize material changes in stock-based compensation expense in the future.
Note 7 — INCOME TAXES
Our tax provision or benefit from income taxes for interim periods is determined using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items, if any, that are taken into account in the relevant period. Each quarter we update our estimate of the annual effective tax rate, and if our estimated tax rate changes, we make a cumulative adjustment.
Our quarterly tax provision, and our quarterly estimate of our annual effective tax rate, is subject to significant variation due to several factors, including variability in accurately predicting our pre-tax and taxable income and loss and the mix of jurisdictions to which they relate, intercompany transactions, the applicability of special tax regimes, changes in how we do business, acquisitions (including integrations) and investments, audit-related developments, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, foreign currency gains (losses), changes in statutes, regulations, case law, and administrative practices, principles, and interpretations related to tax, accounting, and other areas, including European Union state aid rules, and relative changes of expenses or losses for which tax benefits are not recognized. Additionally, our effective tax rate can be more or less volatile based on the amount of pre-tax income or loss. For example, the impact of discrete items and non-deductible expenses on our effective tax rate is greater when our pre-tax income is lower.
The 2017 Tax Act was signed into law on December 22, 2017. The 2017 Tax Act significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax by, among other things, lowering the statutory corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, eliminating certain deductions, imposing a mandatory one-time tax on accumulated earnings of foreign subsidiaries, introducing new tax regimes, and changing how foreign earnings are subject to U.S. tax. The 2017 Tax Act also enhanced and extended through 2026 the option to claim accelerated depreciation deductions on qualified property. We have not completed our determination of the accounting implications of the 2017 Tax Act on our tax accruals. However, we have reasonably estimated the effects of the 2017 Tax Act and recorded provisional amounts in our financial statements as of December 31, 2017. We recorded a provisional tax benefit for the impact of the 2017 Tax Act of approximately $789 million. This amount was primarily comprised of the remeasurement of federal net deferred tax liabilities resulting from the permanent reduction in the U.S. statutory corporate tax rate to 21% from 35%, after taking into account the mandatory one-time tax on the accumulated earnings of our foreign subsidiaries. The amount of this one-time tax is not material. As we complete our analysis of the 2017 Tax Act, collect and prepare necessary data, and interpret any additional guidance issued by the U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies, we may make adjustments to the provisional amounts. Those adjustments may materially impact our provision for income taxes in the period in which the adjustments are made.
For 2018, we estimate that our effective tax rate will be favorably affected by the impact of excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation and the U.S. federal research and development credit and adversely affected by losses incurred in certain foreign jurisdictions for which we may not realize a tax benefit. Losses for which we may not realize a related tax benefit, primarily due to losses of foreign subsidiaries, reduce our pre-tax income without a corresponding reduction in our tax

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expense, and therefore increase our effective tax rate. We record valuation allowances against the deferred tax assets associated with losses for which we may not realize a related tax benefit.
Our income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2017 was $229 million, which included $122 million of net discrete tax benefits primarily attributable to excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation, partially offset by the estimated impact of audit-related developments. Our income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was $287 million, which included $368 million of net discrete tax benefits primarily attributable to excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation.
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds was $246 million and $513 million in Q1 2017 and Q1 2018.
As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, tax contingencies were $2.3 billion and $2.6 billion. We expect the total amount of tax contingencies will grow in 2018. In addition, changes in state, federal, and foreign tax laws may increase our tax contingencies. The timing of the resolution of income tax examinations is highly uncertain, and the amounts ultimately paid, if any, upon resolution of the issues raised by the taxing authorities may differ from the amounts accrued. It is reasonably possible that within the next 12 months we will receive additional assessments by various tax authorities or possibly reach resolution of income tax examinations in one or more jurisdictions. These assessments or settlements could result in changes to our contingencies related to positions on tax filings on prior years’ tax filings.
We are under examination, or may be subject to examination, by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for the calendar year 2005 and thereafter. These examinations may lead to ordinary course adjustments or proposed adjustments to our taxes or our net operating losses with respect to years under examination as well as subsequent periods. As previously disclosed, we have received Notices of Proposed Adjustment (“NOPAs”) from the IRS for transactions undertaken in the 2005 and 2006 calendar years relating to transfer pricing with our foreign subsidiaries. The IRS is seeking to increase our U.S. taxable income by an amount that would result in additional federal tax of approximately $1.5 billion, subject to interest. On March 23, 2017, the U.S. Tax Court issued its decision regarding the issues raised in the IRS NOPAs. The Tax Court rejected the approach from the IRS NOPAs in determining transfer pricing adjustments in 2005 and 2006 for the transactions undertaken with our foreign subsidiaries and adopted, with adjustments, our suggested approach. In September 2017, the IRS appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. We will continue to defend ourselves vigorously in this matter. If the Tax Court decision were reversed on appeal or if the IRS were to successfully assert transfer pricing adjustments of a similar nature to the NOPAs for transactions in subsequent years, we could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities.
In October 2014, the European Commission opened a formal investigation to examine whether decisions by the tax authorities in Luxembourg with regard to the corporate income tax paid by certain of our subsidiaries comply with European Union rules on state aid. On October 4, 2017, the European Commission announced its decision that determinations by the tax authorities in Luxembourg did not comply with European Union rules on state aid. Based on that decision the European Commission announced an estimated recovery amount of approximately €250 million, plus interest, for the period May 2006 through June 2014, and ordered Luxembourg tax authorities to calculate the actual amount of additional taxes subject to recovery. Luxembourg computed an initial recovery amount, consistent with the European Commission’s decision, that we deposited into escrow in March 2018, subject to adjustment pending conclusion of all appeals. In December 2017, Luxembourg appealed the European Commission’s decision. We believe the European Commission’s decision to be without merit and will consider our legal options, including an appeal. We are also subject to taxation in various states and other foreign jurisdictions including Canada, China, Germany, India, Japan, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom. We are under, or may be subject to, audit or examination and additional assessments by the relevant authorities in respect of these particular jurisdictions primarily for 2008 and thereafter.
Note 8 — SEGMENT INFORMATION
We have organized our operations into three segments: North America, International, and AWS. We allocate to segment results the operating expenses “Fulfillment,” “Marketing,” “Technology and content,” and “General and administrative” based on usage, which is generally reflected in the segment in which the costs are incurred. The majority of technology infrastructure costs are allocated to the AWS segment based on usage. The majority of the remaining non-infrastructure technology costs are incurred in the U.S. and are allocated to our North America segment. The results of Whole Foods Market are included in our North America and International segments based on physical location. There are no internal revenue transactions between our reportable segments. These segments reflect the way our chief operating decision maker evaluates the Company’s business performance and manages its operations.

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North America
The North America segment primarily consists of amounts earned from retail sales of consumer products (including from sellers) and subscriptions through North America-focused websites. This segment includes export sales from these websites.
International
The International segment primarily consists of amounts earned from retail sales of consumer products (including from sellers) and subscriptions through internationally-focused websites. This segment includes export sales from these internationally-focused websites (including export sales from these sites to customers in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada), but excludes export sales from our North American websites.
AWS
The AWS segment consists of amounts earned from global sales of compute, storage, database, and other service offerings for start-ups, enterprises, government agencies, and academic institutions.
Information on reportable segments and reconciliation to consolidated net income is as follows (in millions):
 
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
North America
 
 
 
Net sales
$
20,992

 
$
30,725

Operating expenses
20,396

 
29,576

Operating income
$
596

 
$
1,149

 
 
 
 
International
 
 
 
Net sales
$
11,061

 
$
14,875

Operating expenses
11,542

 
15,497

Operating income (loss)
$
(481
)
 
$
(622
)
 
 
 
 
AWS
 
 
 
Net sales
$
3,661

 
$
5,442

Operating expenses
2,771

 
4,042

Operating income
$
890

 
$
1,400

 
 
 
 
Consolidated
 
 
 
Net sales
$
35,714

 
$
51,042

Operating expenses
34,709

 
49,115

Operating income
1,005

 
1,927

Total non-operating income (expense)
(52
)
 
(11
)
Provision for income taxes
(229
)
 
(287
)
Net income
$
724

 
$
1,629



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Net sales by groups of similar products and services, which also have similar economic characteristics, is as follows (in millions):
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Net Sales:
 
Online stores (1)
$
22,826

 
$
26,939

Physical stores (2)

 
4,263

Third-party seller services (3)
6,438

 
9,265

Subscription services (4)
1,939

 
3,102

AWS
3,661

 
5,442

Other (5)
850

 
2,031

Consolidated
$
35,714

 
$
51,042

____________________________
(1)
Includes product sales and digital media content where we record revenue gross. We leverage our retail infrastructure to offer a wide selection of consumable and durable goods that includes media products available in both a physical and digital format, such as books, music, videos, games, and software. These product sales include digital products sold on a transactional basis. Digital product subscriptions that provide unlimited viewing or usage rights are included in Subscription services.
(2)
Includes product sales where our customers physically select items in a store.
(3)
Includes commissions, related fulfillment and shipping fees, and other third-party seller services.
(4)
Includes annual and monthly fees associated with Amazon Prime membership, as well as audiobook, e-book, digital video, digital music, and other non-AWS subscription services.
(5)
Primarily includes sales of advertising services, as well as sales related to our other service offerings.

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Item 2.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-Looking Statements
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding guidance, industry prospects, or future results of operations or financial position, made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are forward-looking. We use words such as anticipates, believes, expects, future, intends, and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect management’s current expectations and are inherently uncertain. Actual results could differ materially for a variety of reasons, including, among others, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, changes in global economic conditions and customer spending, world events, the rate of growth of the Internet, online commerce, and cloud services, the amount that Amazon.com invests in new business opportunities and the timing of those investments, the mix of products and services sold to customers, the mix of net sales derived from products as compared with services, the extent to which we owe income or other taxes, competition, management of growth, potential fluctuations in operating results, international growth and expansion, the outcomes of legal proceedings and claims, fulfillment, sortation, delivery, and data center optimization, risks of inventory management, seasonality, the degree to which we enter into, maintain, and develop commercial agreements, proposed and completed acquisitions and strategic transactions, payments risks, and risks of fulfillment throughput and productivity. In addition, the current global economic climate amplifies many of these risks. These risks and uncertainties, as well as other risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ significantly from management’s expectations, are described in greater detail in Item 1A of Part II, “Risk Factors.”
For additional information, see Item 7 of Part II, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Overview” of our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Critical Accounting Judgments
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The SEC has defined a company’s critical accounting policies as the ones that are most important to the portrayal of the company’s financial condition and results of operations, and which require the company to make its most difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Based on this definition, we have identified the critical accounting policies and judgments addressed below. We also have other key accounting policies, which involve the use of estimates, judgments, and assumptions that are significant to understanding our results. For additional information, see Item 8 of Part II, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Note 1 — Description of Business and Accounting Policies,” of our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K and Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 1 — Accounting Policies,” of this Form 10-Q. Although we believe that our estimates, assumptions, and judgments are reasonable, they are based upon information presently available. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions, judgments, or conditions.
Inventories
Inventories, consisting of products available for sale, are primarily accounted for using the first-in first-out method, and are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. This valuation requires us to make judgments, based on currently-available information, about the likely method of disposition, such as through sales to individual customers, returns to product vendors, or liquidations, and expected recoverable values of each disposition category. These assumptions about future disposition of inventory are inherently uncertain and changes in our estimates and assumptions may cause us to realize material write-downs in the future. As a measure of sensitivity, for every 1% of additional inventory valuation allowance as of March 31, 2018, we would have recorded an additional cost of sales of approximately $150 million.
In addition, we enter into supplier commitments for certain electronic device components and certain products offered in our Whole Foods Market stores. These commitments are based on forecasted customer demand. If we reduce these commitments, we may incur additional costs.
Income Taxes
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. (federal and state) and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating our provision and accruals for these taxes. There are many transactions that occur during the ordinary course of business for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as intercompany transactions, the relative amount of our foreign earnings, including earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions where

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we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory rates, the applicability of special tax regimes, losses incurred in jurisdictions for which we are not able to realize the related tax benefit, changes in foreign currency exchange rates, entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to our existing businesses and operations, acquisitions (including integrations) and investments and how they are financed, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles, and interpretations related to tax, accounting, and other areas, including European Union state aid rules. In addition, a number of countries are actively pursuing changes to their tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals, such as the recently enacted U.S. tax reform legislation commonly referred to as the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “2017 Tax Act”). Finally, foreign governments may enact tax laws in response to the 2017 Tax Act that could result in further changes to global taxation and materially affect our financial position and results of operations.
The 2017 Tax Act significantly changes how the U.S. taxes corporations. The 2017 Tax Act requires complex computations to be performed that were not previously required in U.S. tax law, significant judgments to be made in interpretation of the provisions of the 2017 Tax Act and significant estimates in calculations, and the preparation and analysis of information not previously relevant or regularly produced. The U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies could interpret or issue guidance on how provisions of the 2017 Tax Act will be applied or otherwise administered that is different from our interpretation. As we complete our analysis of the 2017 Tax Act, collect and prepare necessary data, and interpret any additional guidance, we may make adjustments to provisional amounts that we have recorded that may materially impact our provision for income taxes in the period in which the adjustments are made.
We are also currently subject to audit in various jurisdictions, and these jurisdictions may assess additional income tax liabilities against us. Developments in an audit, litigation, or the relevant laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles, and interpretations could have a material effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods for which that development occurs, as well as for prior and subsequent periods. For instance, we have received Notices of Proposed Adjustment (“NOPAs”) from the IRS for transactions undertaken in the 2005 and 2006 calendar years relating to transfer pricing with our foreign subsidiaries and we have been contesting the matter in U.S. Tax Court. On March 23, 2017, the U.S. Tax Court issued its decision regarding the issues raised in the IRS NOPAs. The Tax Court rejected the approach from the IRS NOPAs in determining transfer pricing adjustments in 2005 and 2006 for the transactions undertaken with our foreign subsidiaries and adopted, with adjustments, our suggested approach. In September 2017, the IRS appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. We will continue to defend ourselves vigorously in this matter. If the Tax Court decision were reversed on appeal or if the IRS were to successfully assert transfer pricing adjustments of a similar nature to the NOPAs for transactions in subsequent years, we could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final outcome of tax audits, investigations, and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 1 — Accounting Policies.”



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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Cash flow information, which reflects retrospective adjustments to our consolidated statements of cash flows as described in Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 1 — Accounting Policies,” is as follows (in millions):
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
Twelve Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
Cash provided by (used in):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(1,619
)
 
$
(1,791
)
 
$
17,547

 
$
18,194

Investing activities
(1,350
)
 
(533
)
 
(10,210
)
 
(26,265
)
Financing activities
(888
)
 
(2,164
)
 
(3,608
)
 
8,653

Our principal sources of liquidity are cash flows generated from operations and our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances, which, at fair value, were $31.0 billion and $25.0 billion as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018. Amounts held in foreign currencies were $11.1 billion and $9.1 billion as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, and were primarily Euros, Japanese Yen, and British Pounds.
Cash provided by (used in) operating activities was $(1.6) billion and $(1.8) billion for Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. Our operating cash flows result primarily from cash received from our consumer, seller, developer, enterprise, and content creator customers, and advertising agreements, offset by cash payments we make for products and services, employee compensation (less amounts capitalized related to internal-use software that are reflected as cash used in investing activities), payment processing and related transaction costs, operating leases, and interest payments on our long-term obligations. Cash received from our customers and other activities generally corresponds to our net sales. Because consumers primarily use credit cards to buy from us, our receivables from consumers settle quickly. The increase in operating cash flow for the trailing twelve months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, was primarily due to the increase in net income, excluding non-cash charges such as depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation. Cash provided by (used in) operating activities is also subject to changes in working capital. Working capital at any specific point in time is subject to many variables, including seasonality, inventory management and category expansion, the timing of cash receipts and payments, vendor payment terms, and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.
Cash provided by (used in) investing activities corresponds with cash capital expenditures, including leasehold improvements, internal-use software and website development costs, incentives received from property and equipment vendors, intellectual property rights, and purchases, sales, and maturities of marketable securities. Cash provided by (used in) investing activities was $(1.4) billion and $(533) million for Q1 2017 and Q1 2018, with the variability caused primarily by our decision to purchase or lease property and equipment, and purchases, maturities, and sales of marketable securities. Cash capital expenditures were $1.9 billion and $2.7 billion during Q1 2017 and Q1 2018, which primarily reflect additional capacity to support our fulfillment operations and additional investments in support of continued business growth in technology infrastructure (the majority of which is to support AWS). Capital expenditures included $74 million and $60 million for internal-use software and website development during Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. Stock-based compensation capitalized for internal-use software and website development costs does not affect cash flows. We made cash payments, net of acquired cash, related to acquisition and other investment activity of $45 million and $13 million during Q1 2017 and Q1 2018.
Cash provided by (used in) financing activities was $(888) million and $(2.2) billion for Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. Cash outflows from financing activities result from principal repayments on obligations related to capital leases and finance leases and repayments of long-term debt and other. Principal repayments on obligations related to capital leases and finance leases and repayments of long-term debt and other were $909 million and $2.3 billion in Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. Property and equipment acquired under capital leases was $1.9 billion and $2.3 billion during Q1 2017 and Q1 2018, reflecting investments in support of continued business growth primarily due to investments in technology infrastructure for AWS, which investments we expect to continue over time. Cash inflows from financing activities primarily result from proceeds from long-term debt and other. Proceeds from long-term debt and other were $21 million and $125 million in Q1 2017 and Q1 2018.
We had no borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement and $489 million of borrowings outstanding under our Credit Facility as of March 31, 2018. See Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 5 — Long-Term Debt” for additional information.
Additionally, on April 12, 2018, we acquired Ring Inc. for cash consideration of approximately $900 million, net of cash acquired.
We recorded net tax provisions of $229 million and $287 million in Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. The 2017 Tax Act includes a mandatory one-time tax on accumulated earnings of foreign subsidiaries, and as a result, all previously unremitted earnings for which no U.S. deferred tax liability had been accrued have now been subject to U.S. tax. Notwithstanding the U.S. taxation of

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these amounts, we intend to continue to invest most or all of these earnings, as well as our capital in these subsidiaries, indefinitely outside of the U.S. and do not expect to incur any significant, additional taxes related to such amounts.
We have tax benefits relating to excess stock-based compensation deductions and accelerated depreciation deductions that are being utilized to reduce our U.S. taxable income. The 2017 Tax Act extended through 2026 and enhanced the option to claim accelerated depreciation deductions on qualifying property. Cash taxes paid (net of refunds) were $246 million and $513 million for Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. As of December 31, 2017, our federal net operating loss carryforward was approximately $226 million and we had approximately $855 million of federal tax credits potentially available to offset future tax liabilities. Our federal tax credits are primarily related to the U.S. federal research and development credit. As we utilize our federal net operating losses and tax credits we expect cash paid for taxes to increase. We endeavor to manage our global taxes on a cash basis, rather than on a financial reporting basis. In connection with the European Commission’s October 2017 decision against us on state aid, Luxembourg computed an initial recovery amount, consistent with the European Commission’s decision, of approximately €250 million, that we deposited into escrow in March 2018, subject to adjustment pending conclusion of all appeals.
Our liquidity is also affected by restricted cash balances that are pledged as collateral for real estate leases, amounts due to third-party sellers in certain jurisdictions, debt, and standby and trade letters of credit. To the extent we process payments for third-party sellers or offer certain types of stored value to our customers, some jurisdictions may restrict our use of those funds. These restrictions would result in the reclassification of a portion of our cash and cash equivalents from “Cash and cash equivalents” to restricted cash, which is classified within “Accounts receivable, net and other” on our consolidated balance sheets. As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018, restricted cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities were $1.3 billion and $940 million. See Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 3 — Commitments and Contingencies” for additional discussion of our principal contractual commitments, as well as our pledged assets. Additionally, purchase obligations and open purchase orders, consisting of inventory and significant non-inventory commitments, were $13.1 billion as of March 31, 2018. These purchase obligations and open purchase orders are generally cancellable in full or in part through the contractual provisions.
We believe that cash flows generated from operations and our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances, as well as borrowing available under our credit agreements, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated operating cash needs for at least the next 12 months. However, any projections of future cash needs and cash flows are subject to substantial uncertainty. See Item 1A of Part II, “Risk Factors.” We continually evaluate opportunities to sell additional equity or debt securities, obtain credit facilities, obtain capital, finance, and operating lease arrangements, repurchase common stock, pay dividends, or repurchase, refinance, or otherwise restructure our debt for strategic reasons or to further strengthen our financial position.
The sale of additional equity or convertible debt securities would likely be dilutive to our shareholders. In addition, we will, from time to time, consider the acquisition of, or investment in, complementary businesses, products, services, capital infrastructure, and technologies, which might affect our liquidity requirements or cause us to secure additional financing, or issue additional equity or debt securities. There can be no assurance that additional credit lines or financing instruments will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

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Results of Operations
We have organized our operations into three segments: North America, International, and AWS. Our results reflect the operations of Whole Foods Market from the date of acquisition in August 2017. These segments reflect the way the Company evaluates its business performance and manages its operations. See Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 8 — Segment Information.”
Net Sales
Net sales include product and service sales. Product sales represent revenue from the sale of products and related shipping fees and digital media content where we record revenue gross. Service sales primarily represent third-party seller fees earned (including commissions) and related shipping fees, AWS sales, Amazon Prime membership fees, advertising services, and certain digital content subscriptions. Net sales information is as follows (in millions):
  
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Net Sales:
 
 
 
North America
$
20,992

 
$
30,725

International
11,061

 
14,875

AWS
3,661

 
5,442

Consolidated
$
35,714

 
$
51,042

Year-over-year Percentage Growth:
 
 
 
North America
24
%
 
46
%
International
16

 
34

AWS
43

 
49

Consolidated
23

 
43

Year-over-year Percentage Growth, excluding the effect of foreign exchange rates:
 
 
 
North America
23
%
 
46
%
International
21

 
21

AWS
43

 
48

Consolidated
24

 
39

Net sales mix:
 
 
 
North America
59
%
 
60
%
International
31

 
29

AWS
10

 
11

Consolidated
100
%
 
100
%
Sales increased 43% in Q1 2018 compared to the comparable prior year period. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates impacted net sales by $1.6 billion for Q1 2018. For a discussion of the effect on sales growth of foreign exchange rates, see “Effect of Foreign Exchange Rates” below.
North America sales increased 46% in Q1 2018 compared to the comparable prior year period. The sales growth primarily reflects increased unit sales, including sales by third-party sellers, and the impact of the acquisition of Whole Foods Market. Increased unit sales were driven largely by our continued efforts to reduce prices for our customers, including from our shipping offers, increased in-stock inventory availability, and increased selection.
International sales increased 34% in Q1 2018 compared to the comparable prior year period. The sales growth primarily reflects increased unit sales, including sales by third-party sellers. Increased unit sales were driven largely by our continued efforts to reduce prices for our customers, including from our shipping offers, increased in-stock inventory availability, and increased selection. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates impacted International net sales by $1.5 billion for Q1 2018.
AWS sales increased 49% in Q1 2018 compared to the comparable prior year period. The sales growth primarily reflects increased customer usage, partially offset by pricing changes. Pricing changes were driven largely by our continued efforts to reduce prices for our customers.

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Operating Income (Loss)
Operating income (loss) by segment is as follows (in millions):
 
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Operating Income (Loss):
 
 
 
North America
$
596

 
$
1,149

International
(481
)
 
(622
)
AWS
890

 
1,400

Consolidated
$
1,005

 
$
1,927

Operating income increased from $1.0 billion in Q1 2017 to $1.9 billion in Q1 2018. We believe that operating income is a more meaningful measure than gross profit and gross margin due to the diversity of our product categories and services.
The increase in North America operating income in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to increased unit sales, including sales by third-party sellers, and advertising sales, partially offset by increased levels of operating expenses to expand our fulfillment network and spending on technology and content and marketing efforts. Changes in foreign exchange rates impacted operating income by $(10) million for Q1 2018.
The increase in International operating loss in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to increased levels of operating expenses to expand our fulfillment network and spending on technology and content and marketing efforts, partially offset by increased unit sales, including sales by third-party sellers, and advertising sales. Changes in foreign exchange rates impacted operating loss by $70 million for Q1 2018.
The increase in AWS operating income in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to increased customer usage and cost structure productivity, partially offset by pricing changes and increased spending on technology infrastructure and payroll and related expenses, which was primarily driven by additional investments to support the business growth. Changes in foreign exchange rates impacted operating income by $(89) million for Q1 2018.

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Operating Expenses
Information about operating expenses is as follows (in millions):
 
Three Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
Cost of sales
$
22,440

 
$
30,735

Fulfillment
4,697

 
7,792

Marketing
1,920

 
2,699

Technology and content
4,813

 
6,759

General and administrative
795

 
1,067

Other operating expense, net
44

 
63

Total operating expenses
$
34,709

 
$
49,115

Year-over-year Percentage Growth:
 
 
 
Cost of sales
19
 %
 
37
%
Fulfillment
27

 
66

Marketing
34

 
41

Technology and content
37

 
40

General and administrative
60

 
34

Other operating expense, net
(3
)
 
44

Percent of Net Sales:
 
 
 
Cost of sales
62.8
 %
 
60.2
%
Fulfillment
13.2

 
15.3

Marketing
5.4

 
5.3

Technology and content
13.5

 
13.2

General and administrative
2.2

 
2.1

Other operating expense, net
0.1

 
0.1

Cost of Sales
Cost of sales primarily consists of the purchase price of consumer products, digital media content costs where we record revenue gross, including video and music, packaging supplies, sortation and delivery center and related equipment costs, and inbound and outbound shipping costs, including where we are the transportation service provider.
The increase in cost of sales in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to increased product and shipping costs resulting from increased sales.
Shipping costs to receive products from our suppliers are included in our inventory and recognized as cost of sales upon sale of products to our customers. Shipping costs, which include sortation and delivery center and transportation costs, were $4.4 billion and $6.1 billion in Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. We expect our cost of shipping to continue to increase to the extent our customers accept and use our shipping offers at an increasing rate, we reduce shipping rates, we use more expensive shipping methods, and we offer additional services. We seek to mitigate costs of shipping over time in part through achieving higher sales volumes, optimizing our fulfillment network, negotiating better terms with our suppliers, and achieving better operating efficiencies. We believe that offering low prices to our customers is fundamental to our future success, and one way we offer lower prices is through shipping offers.
Costs to operate our AWS segment are primarily classified as “Technology and content” as we leverage a shared infrastructure that supports both our internal technology requirements and external sales to AWS customers.
Fulfillment
Fulfillment costs primarily consist of those costs incurred in operating and staffing our North America and International fulfillment centers, customer service centers, and physical stores and payment processing costs. While AWS payment processing and related transaction costs are included in fulfillment, AWS costs are primarily classified as “Technology and content.” Fulfillment costs as a percentage of net sales may vary due to several factors, such as payment processing and related transaction

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costs, our level of productivity and accuracy, changes in volume, size, and weight of units received and fulfilled, timing of fulfillment network and physical store expansion, the extent we utilize fulfillment services provided by third parties, mix of products and services sold, and our ability to affect customer service contacts per unit by implementing improvements in our operations and enhancements to our customer self-service features. Additionally, because payment processing and fulfillment costs associated with seller transactions are based on the gross purchase price of underlying transactions, and payment processing and related transaction and fulfillment costs are higher as a percentage of sales versus our retail sales, sales by our sellers have higher fulfillment costs as a percent of net sales.
The increase in fulfillment costs in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to variable costs corresponding with increased product and service sales volume and inventory levels, and costs from expanding our fulfillment network, which includes physical stores.
We seek to expand our fulfillment network to accommodate a greater selection and in-stock inventory levels and to meet anticipated shipment volumes from sales of our own products as well as sales by third parties for which we provide the fulfillment services. We regularly evaluate our facility requirements.
Marketing
We direct customers to our websites primarily through a number of targeted online marketing channels, such as our sponsored search, Associates program, social and online advertising, television advertising, and other initiatives. Our marketing costs are largely variable, based on growth in sales and changes in rates. To the extent there is increased or decreased competition for these traffic sources, or to the extent our mix of these channels shifts, we would expect to see a corresponding change in our marketing costs.
The increase in marketing costs in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to payroll and related expenses, as well as increased spending on online marketing channels.
While costs associated with Amazon Prime memberships and other shipping offers are not included in marketing expense, we view these offers as effective worldwide marketing tools, and intend to continue offering them indefinitely.
Technology and Content
Technology and content costs include payroll and related expenses for employees involved in the research and development of new and existing products and services, development, design, and maintenance of our websites, curation and display of products and services made available on our websites, and infrastructure costs. Infrastructure costs include servers, networking equipment, and data center related depreciation, rent, utilities, and other expenses necessary to support AWS, as well as these and other efforts. Collectively, these costs reflect the investments we make in order to offer a wide variety of products and services to our customers.
We seek to invest efficiently in numerous areas of technology and content so we may continue to enhance the customer experience and improve our process efficiency through rapid technology developments, while operating at an ever increasing scale. Our technology and content investment and capital spending projects often support a variety of product and service offerings due to geographic expansion and the cross-functionality of our systems and operations. We expect spending in technology and content to increase over time as we continue to add employees and technology infrastructure. These costs are allocated to segments based on usage. The increase in technology and content costs in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to increased payroll and related costs associated with technical teams responsible for expanding our existing products and services and initiatives to introduce new products and service offerings, and an increase in spending on technology infrastructure. See Item 7 of Part II, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Overview” of our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of how management views advances in technology and the importance of innovation.
During Q1 2017 and Q1 2018, we capitalized $94 million (including $20 million of stock-based compensation) and $73 million (including $13 million of stock-based compensation) of costs associated with internal-use software and website development. Amortization of previously capitalized amounts was $150 million and $114 million for Q1 2017 and Q1 2018.
General and Administrative
The increase in general and administrative costs in absolute dollars in Q1 2018, compared to the comparable prior year period, is primarily due to increases in payroll and related expenses.
Other Operating Expense, Net
Other operating expense, net was $44 million and $63 million for Q1 2017 and Q1 2018, and was primarily related to the amortization of intangible assets.

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Interest Income and Expense
Our interest income was $39 million and $80 million during Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. We generally invest our excess cash in investment grade short- to intermediate-term fixed income securities and AAA-rated money market funds. Our interest income corresponds with the average balance of invested funds based on the prevailing rates, which vary depending on the geographies and currencies in which they are invested.
Interest expense was $139 million and $330 million during Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. The increase is primarily due to increases in our capital and finance lease arrangements and long-term debt.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net was $48 million and $239 million during Q1 2017 and Q1 2018. The primary component of other income (expense), net is related to foreign currency and equity warrant valuation.
Income Taxes
Our tax provision or benefit from income taxes for interim periods is determined using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items, if any, that are taken into account in the relevant period. Each quarter we update our estimate of the annual effective tax rate, and if our estimated tax rate changes, we make a cumulative adjustment.
Our quarterly tax provision, and our quarterly estimate of our annual effective tax rate, is subject to significant variation due to several factors, including variability in accurately predicting our pre-tax and taxable income and loss and the mix of jurisdictions to which they relate, intercompany transactions, the applicability of special tax regimes, changes in how we do business, acquisitions (including integrations) and investments, audit-related developments, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, foreign currency gains (losses), changes in statutes, regulations, case law, and administrative practices, principles, and interpretations related to tax, accounting, and other areas, including European Union state aid rules, and relative changes of expenses or losses for which tax benefits are not recognized. Additionally, our effective tax rate can be more or less volatile based on the amount of pre-tax income or loss. For example, the impact of discrete items and non-deductible expenses on our effective tax rate is greater when our pre-tax income is lower.
The 2017 Tax Act was signed into law on December 22, 2017. The 2017 Tax Act significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax by, among other things, lowering the statutory corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, eliminating certain deductions, imposing a mandatory one-time tax on accumulated earnings of foreign subsidiaries, introducing new tax regimes, and changing how foreign earnings are subject to U.S. tax. The 2017 Tax Act also enhanced and extended through 2026 the option to claim accelerated depreciation deductions on qualified property. We have not completed our determination of the accounting implications of the 2017 Tax Act on our tax accruals. However, we have reasonably estimated the effects of the 2017 Tax Act and recorded provisional amounts in our financial statements as of December 31, 2017. We recorded a provisional tax benefit for the impact of the 2017 Tax Act of approximately $789 million. This amount was primarily comprised of the remeasurement of federal net deferred tax liabilities resulting from the permanent reduction in the U.S. statutory corporate tax rate to 21% from 35%, after taking into account the mandatory one-time tax on the accumulated earnings of our foreign subsidiaries. The amount of this one-time tax is not material. As we complete our analysis of the 2017 Tax Act, collect and prepare necessary data, and interpret any additional guidance issued by the U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies, we may make adjustments to the provisional amounts. Those adjustments may materially impact our provision for income taxes in the period in which the adjustments are made.
For 2018, we estimate that our effective tax rate will be favorably affected by the impact of excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation and the U.S. federal research and development credit and adversely affected by losses incurred in certain foreign jurisdictions for which we may not realize a tax benefit. Losses for which we may not realize a related tax benefit, primarily due to losses of foreign subsidiaries, reduce our pre-tax income without a corresponding reduction in our tax expense, and therefore increase our effective tax rate. We record valuation allowances against the deferred tax assets associated with losses for which we may not realize a related tax benefit.
Our income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2017 was $229 million, which included $122 million of net discrete tax benefits primarily attributable to excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation, partially offset by the estimated impact of audit-related developments. Our income tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was $287 million, which included $368 million of net discrete tax benefits primarily attributable to excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation.

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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Regulation G, Conditions for Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures, and other SEC regulations define and prescribe the conditions for use of certain non-GAAP financial information. Our measures of free cash flows and the effect of foreign exchange rates on our consolidated statements of operations, meet the definition of non-GAAP financial measures.
We provide multiple measures of free cash flows because we believe these measures provide additional perspective on the impact of acquiring property and equipment with cash and through capital and finance leases. As a result of the adoption of new accounting guidance, we retrospectively adjusted our consolidated statements of cash flows to add restricted cash to cash and cash equivalents. See Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 1 — Accounting Policies.”
Free Cash Flow
Free cash flow is cash flow from operations reduced by “Purchases of property and equipment, including internal-use software and website development, net of proceeds from property and equipment incentives,” which both are included in cash flow from investing activities. The following is a reconciliation of free cash flow to the most comparable GAAP cash flow measure, “Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities,” for the trailing twelve months ended March 31, 2017 and 2018 (in millions):
 
 
Twelve Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
$
17,547

 
$
18,194

Purchases of property and equipment, including internal-use software and website development, net of proceeds from property and equipment incentives
(7,417
)
 
(10,924
)
Free cash flow
$
10,130

 
$
7,270

 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
$
(10,210
)
 
$
(26,265
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
$
(3,608
)
 
$
8,653

Free Cash Flow Less Lease Principal Repayments
Free cash flow less lease principal repayments is free cash flow reduced by “Principal repayments of capital lease obligations,” and “Principal repayments of finance lease obligations,” which are included in cash flow from financing activities. Free cash flow less lease principal repayments approximates the actual payments of cash for our capital and finance leases. The following is a reconciliation of free cash flow less lease principal repayments to the most comparable GAAP cash flow measure, “Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities,” for the trailing twelve months ended March 31, 2017 and 2018 (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
$
17,547

 
$
18,194

Purchases of property and equipment, including internal-use software and website development, net of proceeds from property and equipment incentives
(7,417
)
 
(10,924
)
Principal repayments of capital lease obligations
(3,891
)
 
(5,981
)
Principal repayments of finance lease obligations
(155
)
 
(235
)
Free cash flow less lease principal repayments
$
6,084

 
$
1,054

 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
$
(10,210
)
 
$
(26,265
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
$
(3,608
)
 
$
8,653


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Free Cash Flow Less Finance Lease Principal Repayments and Assets Acquired Under Capital Leases
Free cash flow less finance lease principal repayments and assets acquired under capital leases is free cash flow reduced by “Principal repayments of finance lease obligations,” which is included in cash flow from financing activities, and property and equipment acquired under capital leases. In this measure, property and equipment acquired under capital leases is reflected as if these assets had been purchased with cash, which is not the case as these assets have been leased. The following is a reconciliation of free cash flow less finance lease principal repayments and assets acquired under capital leases to the most comparable GAAP cash flow measure, “Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities,” for the trailing twelve months ended March 31, 2017 and 2018 (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended 
 March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
$
17,547

 
$
18,194

Purchases of property and equipment, including internal-use software and website development, net of proceeds from property and equipment incentives
(7,417
)
 
(10,924
)
Property and equipment acquired under capital leases
(6,717
)
 
(10,020
)
Principal repayments of finance lease obligations
(155
)
 
(235
)
Free cash flow less finance lease principal repayments and assets acquired under capital leases
$
3,258

 
$
(2,985
)
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
$
(10,210
)
 
$
(26,265
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
$
(3,608
)
 
$
8,653

All of these free cash flows measures have limitations as they omit certain components of the overall cash flow statement and do not represent the residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures. For example, these measures of free cash flows do not incorporate the portion of payments representing principal reductions of debt or cash payments for business acquisitions. Additionally, our mix of property and equipment acquisitions with cash or other financing options may change over time. Therefore, we believe it is important to view free cash flows measures only as a complement to our entire consolidated statements of cash flows.
Effect of Foreign Exchange Rates
Information regarding the effect of foreign exchange rates, versus the U.S. Dollar, on our net sales, operating expenses, and operating income is provided to show reported period operating results had the foreign exchange rates remained the same as those in effect in the comparable prior year periods. The effect on our net sales, operating expenses, and operating income from changes in our foreign exchange rates versus the U.S. Dollar is as follows (in millions):
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2017
 
2018
 
As
Reported
 
Exchange
Rate
Effect (1)
 
At Prior
Year
Rates (2)
 
As Reported
 
Exchange
Rate
Effect (1)
 
At Prior
Year
Rates (2)
Net sales
$
35,714

 
$
492

 
$
36,206

 
$
51,042

 
$
(1,555
)

$
49,487

Operating expenses
34,709

 
461

 
35,170

 
49,115

 
(1,584
)

47,531

Operating income
1,005

 
31

 
1,036

 
1,927

 
29


1,956

___________________
(1)
Represents the change in reported amounts resulting from changes in foreign exchange rates from those in effect in the comparable prior year period for operating results.
(2)
Represents the outcome that would have resulted had foreign exchange rates in the reported period been the same as those in effect in the comparable prior year period for operating results.

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Guidance
We provided guidance on April 26, 2018, in our earnings release furnished on Form 8-K as set forth below. These forward-looking statements reflect Amazon.com’s expectations as of April 26, 2018, and are subject to substantial uncertainty. Our results are inherently unpredictable and may be materially affected by many factors, such as fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, changes in global economic conditions and customer spending, world events, the rate of growth of the Internet, online commerce, and cloud services, as well as those outlined in Item 1A of Part II, “Risk Factors.”
Second Quarter 2018 Guidance
Net sales are expected to be between $51.0 billion and $54.0 billion, or to grow between 34% and 42% compared with second quarter 2017. This guidance anticipates a favorable impact of approximately $1.2 billion or 320 basis points from foreign exchange rates.
Operating income is expected to be between $1.1 billion and $1.9 billion, compared with $628 million in second quarter 2017.
This guidance assumes, among other things, that no additional business acquisitions, investments, restructurings, or legal settlements are concluded.


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Item 3.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risk for the effect of interest rate changes, foreign currency fluctuations, and changes in the market values of our investments. Information relating to quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk is set forth below and in Item 2 of Part I, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Interest Rate Risk
Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio and our long-term debt. Our long-term debt is carried at amortized cost and fluctuations in interest rates do not impact our consolidated financial statements. However, the fair value of our debt, which pays interest at a fixed rate, will generally fluctuate with movements of interest rates, increasing in periods of declining rates of interest and declining in periods of increasing rates of interest. All of our cash equivalent and marketable fixed income securities are designated as available-for-sale and, accordingly, are presented at fair value on our consolidated balance sheets. We generally invest our excess cash in investment grade short- to intermediate-term fixed income securities and AAA-rated money market funds. Fixed income securities may have their fair market value adversely affected due to a rise in interest rates, and we may suffer losses in principal if forced to sell securities that have declined in market value due to changes in interest rates.
Foreign Exchange Risk
During Q1 2018, net sales from our International segment accounted for 29% of our consolidated revenues. Net sales and related expenses generated from our internationally-focused websites, and from www.amazon.ca and www.amazon.com.mx (which are included in our North America segment), are primarily denominated in the functional currencies of the corresponding websites and primarily include Euros, Japanese Yen, and British Pounds. The results of operations of, and certain of our intercompany balances associated with, our internationally-focused websites and AWS are exposed to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Upon consolidation, as foreign exchange rates vary, net sales and other operating results may differ materially from expectations, and we may record significant gains or losses on the remeasurement of intercompany balances. For example, as a result of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates throughout the period compared to rates in effect the prior year, International segment net sales in Q1 2018 increased by $1.5 billion in comparison with Q1 2017.
We have foreign exchange risk related to foreign-denominated cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (“foreign funds”). Based on the balance of foreign funds as of March 31, 2018, of $9.1 billion, an assumed 5%, 10%, and 20% adverse change to foreign exchange would result in fair value declines of $455 million, $915 million, and $1.8 billion. All cash equivalents and marketable fixed-income securities are classified as “available-for-sale.” Fluctuations in fair value are recorded in “Accumulated other comprehensive loss,” a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Equity securities with readily determinable fair values are included in “Marketable securities” on our consolidated balance sheets and are measured at fair value with changes recognized in net income.
We have foreign exchange risk related to our intercompany balances denominated in various foreign currencies. Based on the intercompany balances as of March 31, 2018, an assumed 5%, 10%, and 20% adverse change to foreign exchange would result in losses of $260 million, $540 million, and $1.2 billion, recorded to “Other income (expense), net.”
See Item 2 of Part I, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Results of Operations — Effect of Foreign Exchange Rates” for additional information on the effect on reported results of changes in foreign exchange rates.
Investment Risk
As of March 31, 2018, our recorded value in equity and equity warrant investments in public and private companies was $848 million. Our equity and equity warrant investments in publicly traded companies represent $479 million of our investments as of March 31, 2018, and are recorded at fair value, which is subject to market price volatility. We perform a qualitative assessment for our equity and equity warrant investments in private companies to identify impairment. If this assessment indicates that an impairment exists, we estimate the fair value of the investment and, if the fair value is less than carrying value, we write down the investment to fair value. Our assessment includes a review of recent operating results and trends, recent sales/acquisitions of the investee securities, and other publicly available data. The current global economic climate provides additional uncertainty. Valuations of private companies are inherently more complex due to the lack of readily available market data. As such, we believe that market sensitivities are not practicable.

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Item 4.
Controls and Procedures
We carried out an evaluation required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “1934 Act”), under the supervision and with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the 1934 Act, as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the 1934 Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and to provide reasonable assurance that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
During the most recent fiscal quarter, there has not occurred any change in our internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to provide reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives as specified above. Management does not expect, however, that our disclosure controls and procedures will prevent or detect all error and fraud. Any control system, no matter how well designed and operated, is based upon certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that its objectives will be met. Further, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected.


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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Legal Proceedings
See Item 1 of Part I, “Financial Statements — Note 3 — Commitments and Contingencies — Legal Proceedings.”

Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Please carefully consider the following risk factors. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. In addition, the current global economic climate amplifies many of these risks.
We Face Intense Competition
Our businesses are rapidly evolving and intensely competitive, and we have many competitors in different industries, including retail, e-commerce services, digital content and electronic devices, and web and infrastructure computing services. Some of our current and potential competitors have greater resources, longer histories, more customers, and/or greater brand recognition, particularly with our newly-launched products and services and in our newer geographic regions. They may secure better terms from vendors, adopt more aggressive pricing, and devote more resources to technology, infrastructure, fulfillment, and marketing.
Competition may intensify, including with the development of new business models and the entry of new and well-funded competitors, and as our competitors enter into business combinations or alliances and established companies in other market segments expand to become competitive with our business. In addition, new and enhanced technologies, including search, web and infrastructure computing services, digital content, and electronic devices, may increase our competition. The Internet facilitates competitive entry and comparison shopping, and increased competition may reduce our sales and profits.
Our Expansion Places a Significant Strain on our Management, Operational, Financial, and Other Resources
We are rapidly and significantly expanding our global operations, including increasing our product and service offerings and scaling our infrastructure to support our retail and services businesses. This expansion increases the complexity of our business and places significant strain on our management, personnel, operations, systems, technical performance, financial resources, and internal financial control and reporting functions. We may not be able to manage growth effectively, which could damage our reputation, limit our growth, and negatively affect our operating results.
Our Expansion into New Products, Services, Technologies, and Geographic Regions Subjects Us to Additional Business, Legal, Financial, and Competitive Risks
We may have limited or no experience in our newer market segments, and our customers may not adopt our new offerings. These offerings may present new and difficult technology challenges, and we may be subject to claims if customers of these offerings experience service disruptions or failures or other quality issues. In addition, profitability, if any, in our newer activities may be lower than in our older activities, and we may not be successful enough in these newer activities to recoup our investments in them. If any of this were to occur, it could damage our reputation, limit our growth, and negatively affect our operating results.
We May Experience Significant Fluctuations in Our Operating Results and Growth Rate
We may not be able to accurately forecast our growth rate. We base our expense levels and investment plans on sales estimates. A significant portion of our expenses and investments is fixed, and we may not be able to adjust our spending quickly enough if our sales are less than expected.
Our revenue growth may not be sustainable, and our percentage growth rates may decrease. Our revenue and operating profit growth depends on the continued growth of demand for the products and services offered by us or our sellers, and our business is affected by general economic and business conditions worldwide. A softening of demand, whether caused by changes in customer preferences or a weakening of the U.S. or global economies, may result in decreased revenue or growth.
Our sales and operating results will also fluctuate for many other reasons, including due to risks described elsewhere in this section and the following:

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our ability to retain and increase sales to existing customers, attract new customers, and satisfy our customers’ demands;
our ability to retain and expand our network of sellers;
our ability to offer products on favorable terms, manage inventory, and fulfill orders;
the introduction of competitive websites, products, services, price decreases, or improvements;
changes in usage or adoption rates of the Internet, e-commerce, electronic devices, and web services, including outside the U.S.;
timing, effectiveness, and costs of expansion and upgrades of our systems and infrastructure;
the success of our geographic, service, and product line expansions;
the extent to which we finance, and the terms of any such financing for, our current operations and future growth;
the outcomes of legal proceedings and claims, which may include significant monetary damages or injunctive relief and could have a material adverse impact on our operating results;
variations in the mix of products and services we sell;
variations in our level of merchandise and vendor returns;
the extent to which we offer free shipping, continue to reduce prices worldwide, and provide additional benefits to our customers;
the extent to which we invest in technology and content, fulfillment, and other expense categories;
increases in the prices of fuel and gasoline, as well as increases in the prices of other energy products and commodities like paper and packing supplies;
the extent to which our equity-method investees record significant operating and non-operating items;
the extent to which operators of the networks between our customers and our websites successfully charge fees to grant our customers unimpaired and unconstrained access to our online services;
our ability to collect amounts owed to us when they become due;
the extent to which use of our services is affected by spyware, viruses, phishing and other spam emails, denial of service attacks, data theft, computer intrusions, outages, and similar events; and
terrorist attacks and armed hostilities.
Our International Operations Expose Us to a Number of Risks
Our international activities are significant to our revenues and profits, and we plan to further expand internationally. In certain international market segments, we have relatively little operating experience and may not benefit from any first-to-market advantages or otherwise succeed. It is costly to establish, develop, and maintain international operations and websites, and promote our brand internationally. Our international operations may not be profitable on a sustained basis.
In addition to risks described elsewhere in this section, our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including:
local economic and political conditions;
government regulation of e-commerce and other services, electronic devices, and competition, and restrictive governmental actions (such as trade protection measures, including export duties and quotas and custom duties and tariffs), nationalization, and restrictions on foreign ownership;
restrictions on sales or distribution of certain products or services and uncertainty regarding liability for products, services, and content, including uncertainty as a result of less Internet-friendly legal systems, local laws, lack of legal precedent, and varying rules, regulations, and practices regarding the physical and digital distribution of media products and enforcement of intellectual property rights;
business licensing or certification requirements, such as for imports, exports, web services, and electronic devices;
limitations on the repatriation and investment of funds and foreign currency exchange restrictions;
limited fulfillment and technology infrastructure;
shorter payable and longer receivable cycles and the resultant negative impact on cash flow;

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laws and regulations regarding consumer and data protection, privacy, network security, encryption, payments, and restrictions on pricing or discounts;
lower levels of use of the Internet;
lower levels of consumer spending and fewer opportunities for growth compared to the U.S.;
lower levels of credit card usage and increased payment risk;
difficulty in staffing, developing, and managing foreign operations as a result of distance, language, and cultural differences;
different employee/employer relationships and the existence of works councils and labor unions;
compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other applicable U.S. and foreign laws prohibiting corrupt payments to government officials and other third parties;
laws and policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions affecting trade, foreign investment, loans, and taxes; and
geopolitical events, including war and terrorism.
As international e-commerce and other online and web services grow, competition will intensify. Local companies may have a substantial competitive advantage because of their greater understanding of, and focus on, the local customer, as well as their more established local brand names. We may not be able to hire, train, retain, and manage required personnel, which may limit our international growth.
The People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) and India regulate Amazon’s and its affiliates’ businesses and operations in country through regulations and license requirements that may restrict (i) foreign investment in and operation of the Internet, IT infrastructure, data centers, retail, delivery, and other sectors, (ii) Internet content, and (iii) the sale of media and other products and services. For example, in order to meet local ownership and regulatory licensing requirements, www.amazon.cn is operated by PRC companies that are indirectly owned, either wholly or partially, by PRC nationals. In addition, we provide certain technology services in China in conjunction with third parties that hold PRC licenses to provide services. In India, the government restricts the ownership or control of Indian companies by foreign entities involved in online multi-brand retail trading activities. For www.amazon.in, we provide certain marketing tools and logistics services to third-party sellers to enable them to sell online and deliver to customers, and we hold indirect minority interests in entities that are third-party sellers on the www.amazon.in marketplace. Although we believe these structures and activities comply with existing laws, they involve unique risks, and the PRC is actively considering changes in its foreign investment rules that could impact these structures and activities. There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation of PRC and Indian laws and regulations, and it is possible that these governments will ultimately take a view contrary to ours. In addition, our Chinese and Indian businesses and operations may be unable to continue to operate if we or our affiliates are unable to access sufficient funding or in China enforce contractual relationships with respect to management and control of such businesses. If our international activities were found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC, Indian or other laws or regulations or if interpretations of those laws and regulations were to change, our businesses in those countries could be subject to fines and other financial penalties, have licenses revoked, or be forced to shut down entirely.
If We Do Not Successfully Optimize and Operate Our Fulfillment Network and Data Centers, Our Business Could Be Harmed
If we do not adequately predict customer demand or otherwise optimize and operate our fulfillment network and data centers successfully, it could result in excess or insufficient fulfillment or data center capacity, or result in increased costs, impairment charges, or both, or harm our business in other ways. As we continue to add fulfillment and data center capability or add new businesses with different requirements, our fulfillment and data center networks become increasingly complex and operating them becomes more challenging. There can be no assurance that we will be able to operate our networks effectively.
In addition, a failure to optimize inventory in our fulfillment network will increase our net shipping cost by requiring long-zone or partial shipments. We and our co-sourcers may be unable to adequately staff our fulfillment network and customer service centers. If the other businesses on whose behalf we perform inventory fulfillment services deliver product to our fulfillment centers in excess of forecasts, we may be unable to secure sufficient storage space and may be unable to optimize our fulfillment network.
We rely on a limited number of shipping companies to deliver inventory to us and completed orders to our customers. If we are not able to negotiate acceptable terms with these companies or they experience performance problems or other difficulties, it could negatively impact our operating results and customer experience. In addition, our ability to receive inbound inventory efficiently and ship completed orders to customers also may be negatively affected by inclement weather, fire, flood, power loss, earthquakes, labor disputes, acts of war or terrorism, acts of God, and similar factors.

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Under some of our commercial agreements, we maintain the inventory of other companies, thereby increasing the complexity of tracking inventory and operating our fulfillment network. Our failure to properly handle such inventory or the inability of these other companies to accurately forecast product demand would result in unexpected costs and other harm to our business and reputation.
The Seasonality of Our Business Places Increased Strain on Our Operations
We expect a disproportionate amount of our net sales to occur during our fourth quarter. If we do not stock or restock popular products in sufficient amounts such that we fail to meet customer demand, it could significantly affect our revenue and our future growth. If we overstock products, we may be required to take significant inventory markdowns or write-offs and incur commitment costs, which could reduce profitability. We may experience an increase in our net shipping cost due to complimentary upgrades, split-shipments, and additional long-zone shipments necessary to ensure timely delivery for the holiday season. If too many customers access our websites within a short period of time due to increased holiday demand, we may experience system interruptions that make our websites unavailable or prevent us from efficiently fulfilling orders, which may reduce the volume of goods we sell and the attractiveness of our products and services. In addition, we may be unable to adequately staff our fulfillment network and customer service centers during these peak periods and delivery and other fulfillment companies and customer service co-sourcers may be unable to meet the seasonal demand. We also face risks described elsewhere in this Item 1A relating to fulfillment network optimization and inventory.
We generally have payment terms with our retail vendors that extend beyond the amount of time necessary to collect proceeds from our consumer customers. As a result of holiday sales, as of December 31 of each year, our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances typically reach their highest level (other than as a result of cash flows provided by or used in investing and financing activities). This operating cycle results in a corresponding increase in accounts payable as of December 31. Our accounts payable balance generally declines during the first three months of the year, resulting in a corresponding decline in our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances.
Our Business Could Suffer if We Are Unsuccessful in Making, Integrating, and Maintaining Commercial Agreements, Strategic Alliances, and Other Business Relationships
We provide e-commerce and other services to businesses through commercial agreements, strategic alliances, and business relationships. Under these agreements, we provide web services, technology, fulfillment, computing, digital storage, and other services, as well as enable sellers to offer products or services through our websites. These arrangements are complex and require substantial infrastructure capacity, personnel, and other resource commitments, which may limit the amount of business we can service. We may not be able to implement, maintain, and develop the components of these commercial relationships, which may include web services, fulfillment, customer service, inventory management, tax collection, payment processing, hardware, content, and third-party software, and engaging third parties to perform services. The amount of compensation we receive under certain of our commercial agreements is partially dependent on the volume of the other company’s sales. Therefore, if the other company’s offering is not successful, the compensation we receive may be lower than expected or the agreement may be terminated. Moreover, we may not be able to enter into additional commercial relationships and strategic alliances on favorable terms. We also may be subject to claims from businesses to which we provide these services if we are unsuccessful in implementing, maintaining, or developing these services.
As our agreements terminate, we may be unable to renew or replace these agreements on comparable terms, or at all. We may in the future enter into amendments on less favorable terms or encounter parties that have difficulty meeting their contractual obligations to us, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Our present and future e-commerce services agreements, other commercial agreements, and strategic alliances create additional risks such as:
disruption of our ongoing business, including loss of management focus on existing businesses;
impairment of other relationships;
variability in revenue and income from entering into, amending, or terminating such agreements or relationships; and
difficulty integrating under the commercial agreements.
Our Business Could Suffer if We Are Unsuccessful in Making, Integrating, and Maintaining Acquisitions and Investments
We have acquired and invested in a number of companies, and we may acquire or invest in or enter into joint ventures with additional companies. These transactions (such as our acquisition of Whole Foods Market, Inc.) create risks such as:
disruption of our ongoing business, including loss of management focus on existing businesses;

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problems retaining key personnel;
additional operating losses and expenses of the businesses we acquired or in which we invested;
the potential impairment of tangible and intangible assets and goodwill, including as a result of acquisitions;
the potential impairment of customer and other relationships of the company we acquired or in which we invested or our own customers as a result of any integration of operations;
the difficulty of completing such transactions and achieving anticipated benefits within expected timeframes, or at all;
the difficulty of incorporating acquired operations, technology, and rights into our offerings, and unanticipated expenses related to such integration;
the difficulty of integrating a new company’s accounting, financial reporting, management, information and information security, human resource, and other administrative systems to permit effective management, and the lack of control if such integration is delayed or not implemented;
for investments in which an investee’s financial performance is incorporated into our financial results, either in full or in part, the dependence on the investee’s accounting, financial reporting, and similar systems, controls, and processes;
the difficulty of implementing at companies we acquire the controls, procedures, and policies appropriate for a larger public company;
the risks associated with businesses we acquire or invest in, which may differ from or be more significant than the risks our other businesses face;
potential unknown liabilities associated with a company we acquire or in which we invest; and
for foreign transactions, additional risks related to the integration of operations across different cultures and languages, and the economic, political, and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.
As a result of future acquisitions or mergers, we might need to issue additional equity securities, spend our cash, or incur debt, contingent liabilities, or amortization expenses related to intangible assets, any of which could reduce our profitability and harm our business or only be available on unfavorable terms, if at all. In addition, valuations supporting our acquisitions and strategic investments could change rapidly given the current global economic climate. We could determine that such valuations have experienced impairments or other-than-temporary declines in fair value which could adversely impact our financial results.
We Have Foreign Exchange Risk
The results of operations of, and certain of our intercompany balances associated with, our international websites and product and service offerings are exposed to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Upon translation, operating results may differ materially from expectations, and we may record significant gains or losses on the remeasurement of intercompany balances. As we have expanded our international operations, our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations has increased. We also hold cash equivalents and/or marketable securities in foreign currencies including British Pounds, Euros, and Japanese Yen. If the U.S. Dollar strengthens compared to these currencies, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances, when translated, may be materially less than expected and vice versa.
The Loss of Key Senior Management Personnel Could Negatively Affect Our Business
We depend on our senior management and other key personnel, particularly Jeffrey P. Bezos, our President, CEO, and Chairman. We do not have “key person” life insurance policies. The loss of any of our executive officers or other key employees could harm our business.

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We Could Be Harmed by Data Loss or Other Security Breaches
As a result of our services being web-based and the fact that we process, store, and transmit large amounts of data, including personal information, for our customers, failure to prevent or mitigate data loss or other security breaches, including breaches of our vendors’ technology and systems, could expose us or our customers to a risk of loss or misuse of such information, adversely affect our operating results, result in litigation or potential liability for us, and otherwise harm our business. We use third-party technology and systems for a variety of reasons, including, without limitation, encryption and authentication technology, employee email, content delivery to customers, back-office support, and other functions. Some subsidiaries had past security breaches, and, although they did not have a material adverse effect on our operating results, there can be no assurance of a similar result in the future. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect customer information and prevent data loss and other security breaches, including systems and processes designed to reduce the impact of a security breach at a third-party vendor, such measures cannot provide absolute security.
We Face Risks Related to System Interruption and Lack of Redundancy
We experience occasional system interruptions and delays that make our websites and services unavailable or slow to respond and prevent us from efficiently fulfilling orders or providing services to third parties, which may reduce our net sales and the attractiveness of our products and services. If we are unable to continually add software and hardware, effectively upgrade our systems and network infrastructure, and take other steps to improve the efficiency of our systems, it could cause system interruptions or delays and adversely affect our operating results.
Our computer and communications systems and operations could be damaged or interrupted by fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, earthquakes, acts of war or terrorism, acts of God, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, and similar events or disruptions. Any of these events could cause system interruption, delays, and loss of critical data, and could prevent us from accepting and fulfilling customer orders and providing services, which could make our product and service offerings less attractive and subject us to liability. Our systems are not fully redundant and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient. In addition, we may have inadequate insurance coverage to compensate for any related losses. Any of these events could damage our reputation and be expensive to remedy.
We Face Significant Inventory Risk
In addition to risks described elsewhere in this Item 1A relating to fulfillment network and inventory optimization by us and third parties, we are exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely affect our operating results as a result of seasonality, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, defective merchandise, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, changes in consumer tastes with respect to our products, spoilage, and other factors. We endeavor to accurately predict these trends and avoid overstocking or understocking products we manufacture and/or sell. Demand for products, however, can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. In addition, when we begin selling or manufacturing a new product, it may be difficult to establish vendor relationships, determine appropriate product or component selection, and accurately forecast demand. The acquisition of certain types of inventory or components may require significant lead-time and prepayment and they may not be returnable. We carry a broad selection and significant inventory levels of certain products, such as consumer electronics, and we may be unable to sell products in sufficient quantities or during the relevant selling seasons. Any one of the inventory risk factors set forth above may adversely affect our operating results.
We May Not Be Able to Adequately Protect Our Intellectual Property Rights or May Be Accused of Infringing Intellectual Property Rights of Third Parties
We regard our trademarks, service marks, copyrights, patents, trade dress, trade secrets, proprietary technology, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark, copyright, and patent law, trade secret protection, and confidentiality and/or license agreements with our employees, customers, and others to protect our proprietary rights. Effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which our products and services are made available. We also may not be able to acquire or maintain appropriate domain names in all countries in which we do business. Furthermore, regulations governing domain names may not protect our trademarks and similar proprietary rights. We may be unable to prevent third parties from acquiring domain names that are similar to, infringe upon, or diminish the value of our trademarks and other proprietary rights.
We may not be able to discover or determine the extent of any unauthorized use of our proprietary rights. Third parties that license our proprietary rights also may take actions that diminish the value of our proprietary rights or reputation. The protection of our intellectual property may require the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources. Moreover, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may not adequately protect our rights or prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating our proprietary rights. We also cannot be certain that others will not independently develop or otherwise acquire equivalent or superior technology or other intellectual property rights.

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Other parties also may claim that we infringe their proprietary rights. We have been subject to, and expect to continue to be subject to, claims and legal proceedings regarding alleged infringement by us of the intellectual property rights of third parties. Such claims, whether or not meritorious, may result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources, injunctions against us, or the payment of damages, including to satisfy indemnification obligations. We may need to obtain licenses from third parties who allege that we have infringed their rights, but such licenses may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. In addition, we may not be able to obtain or utilize on terms that are favorable to us, or at all, licenses or other rights with respect to intellectual property we do not own. These risks have been amplified by the increase in third parties whose sole or primary business is to assert such claims.
Our digital content offerings depend in part on effective digital rights management technology to control access to digital content. If the digital rights management technology that we use is compromised or otherwise malfunctions, we could be subject to claims, and content providers may be unwilling to include their content in our service.
We Have a Rapidly Evolving Business Model and Our Stock Price Is Highly Volatile
We have a rapidly evolving business model. The trading price of our common stock fluctuates significantly in response to, among other risks, the risks described elsewhere in this Item 1A, as well as:
changes in interest rates;
conditions or trends in the Internet and the industry segments we operate in;
quarterly variations in operating results;
fluctuations in the stock market in general and market prices for Internet-related companies in particular;
changes in financial estimates by us or securities analysts and recommendations by securities analysts;
changes in our capital structure, including issuance of additional debt or equity to the public;
changes in the valuation methodology of, or performance by, other e-commerce or technology companies; and
transactions in our common stock by major investors and certain analyst reports, news, and speculation.
Volatility in our stock price could adversely affect our business and financing opportunities and force us to increase our cash compensation to employees or grant larger stock awards than we have historically, which could hurt our operating results or reduce the percentage ownership of our existing stockholders, or both.
Government Regulation Is Evolving and Unfavorable Changes Could Harm Our Business
We are subject to general business regulations and laws, as well as regulations and laws specifically governing the Internet, e-commerce, electronic devices, and other services. Existing and future laws and regulations may impede our growth. These regulations and laws may cover taxation, privacy, data protection, pricing, content, copyrights, distribution, transportation, mobile communications, electronic device certification, electronic waste, energy consumption, environmental regulation, electronic contracts and other communications, competition, consumer protection, employment, trade and protectionist measures, web services, the provision of online payment services, information reporting requirements, unencumbered Internet access to our services or access to our facilities, the design and operation of websites, health and sanitation standards, the characteristics and quality of products and services, product labeling, and the commercial operation of unmanned aircraft systems. It is not clear how existing laws governing issues such as property ownership, libel, and personal privacy apply to the Internet, e-commerce, digital content, and web services. Jurisdictions may regulate consumer-to-consumer online businesses, including certain aspects of our seller programs. Unfavorable regulations and laws could diminish the demand for, or availability of, our products and services and increase our cost of doing business.
We Could Be Subject to Additional Sales Tax or Other Tax Liabilities
An increasing number of states and foreign jurisdictions have considered or adopted laws or administrative practices, with or without notice, that impose new taxes on all or a portion of gross revenue or other similar amounts or impose additional obligations on remote sellers and online marketplaces to collect transaction taxes such as sales, consumption, value added, or similar taxes. We may not have sufficient lead time to build systems and processes to collect these taxes properly, or at all. Failure to comply with such laws or administrative practices, or a successful assertion by such states or foreign jurisdictions requiring us to collect taxes where we do not, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including for past sales, as well as penalties and interest. In addition, if the tax authorities in jurisdictions where we are already subject to sales tax or other indirect tax obligations were successfully to challenge our positions, our tax liability could increase substantially. In the U.S., although Supreme Court decisions restrict states’ rights to require remote sellers to collect state and local sales taxes, the Supreme Court has recently agreed to hear a case that could overturn prior precedent. We support a federal law that would allow states to require sales tax collection by remote sellers under a nationwide system.

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We are also subject to U.S. (federal and state) and foreign laws, regulations, and administrative practices that require us to collect information from our customers, vendors, merchants, and other third parties for tax reporting purposes and report such information to various government agencies. The scope of such requirements continues to expand, requiring us to develop and implement new compliance systems. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations could result in significant penalties.
We Could Be Subject to Additional Income Tax Liabilities
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. (federal and state) and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating our provision and accruals for these taxes. There are many transactions that occur during the ordinary course of business for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as intercompany transactions, the relative amount of our foreign earnings, including earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory rates, the applicability of special tax regimes, losses incurred in jurisdictions for which we are not able to realize the related tax benefit, changes in foreign currency exchange rates, entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to our existing businesses and operations, acquisitions (including integrations) and investments and how they are financed, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles, and interpretations related to tax, accounting, and other areas, including European Union state aid rules. In addition, a number of countries are actively pursuing changes to their tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals, such as the recently enacted U.S. tax reform legislation commonly referred to as the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “2017 Tax Act”). Finally, foreign governments may enact tax laws in response to the 2017 Tax Act that could result in further changes to global taxation and materially affect our financial position and results of operations.
The 2017 Tax Act significantly changes how the U.S. taxes corporations. The 2017 Tax Act requires complex computations to be performed that were not previously required in U.S. tax law, significant judgments to be made in interpretation of the provisions of the 2017 Tax Act and significant estimates in calculations, and the preparation and analysis of information not previously relevant or regularly produced. The U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies could interpret or issue guidance on how provisions of the 2017 Tax Act will be applied or otherwise administered that is different from our interpretation. As we complete our analysis of the 2017 Tax Act, collect and prepare necessary data, and interpret any additional guidance, we may make adjustments to provisional amounts that we have recorded that may materially impact our provision for income taxes in the period in which the adjustments are made.
We are also currently subject to audit in various jurisdictions, and these jurisdictions may assess additional income tax liabilities against us. Developments in an audit, litigation, or the relevant laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles, and interpretations could have a material effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods for which that development occurs, as well as for prior and subsequent periods. For instance, we have received Notices of Proposed Adjustment (“NOPAs”) from the IRS for transactions undertaken in the 2005 and 2006 calendar years relating to transfer pricing with our foreign subsidiaries and we have been contesting the matter in U.S. Tax Court. On March 23, 2017, the U.S. Tax Court issued its decision regarding the issues raised in the IRS NOPAs. The Tax Court rejected the approach from the IRS NOPAs in determining transfer pricing adjustments in 2005 and 2006 for the transactions undertaken with our foreign subsidiaries and adopted, with adjustments, our suggested approach. In September 2017, the IRS appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. We will continue to defend ourselves vigorously in this matter. If the Tax Court decision were reversed on appeal or if the IRS were to successfully assert transfer pricing adjustments of a similar nature to the NOPAs for transactions in subsequent years, we could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final outcome of tax audits, investigations, and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals.
Our Supplier Relationships Subject Us to a Number of Risks
We have significant suppliers, including licensors, and in some cases, limited or single-sources of supply, that are important to our sourcing, services, manufacturing, and any related ongoing servicing of merchandise and content. We do not have long-term arrangements with most of our suppliers to guarantee availability of merchandise, content, components, or services, particular payment terms, or the extension of credit limits. If our current suppliers were to stop selling or licensing merchandise, content, components, or services to us on acceptable terms, or delay delivery, including as a result of one or more supplier bankruptcies due to poor economic conditions, as a result of natural disasters, or for other reasons, we may be unable to procure alternatives from other suppliers in a timely and efficient manner and on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, if our suppliers or other vendors violate applicable laws, regulations, our code of standards and responsibilities, or implement practices regarded as unethical, unsafe, or hazardous to the environment, it could damage our reputation, limit our growth, and negatively affect our operating results.

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We May Be Subject to Risks Related to Government Contracts and Related Procurement Regulations
Our contracts with U.S., as well as state, local, and foreign, government entities are subject to various procurement regulations and other requirements relating to their formation, administration, and performance. We may be subject to audits and investigations relating to our government contracts, and any violations could result in various civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contract, refunding or suspending of payments, forfeiture of profits, payment of fines, and suspension or debarment from future government business. In addition, such contracts may provide for termination by the government at any time, without cause.
We May Be Subject to Product Liability Claims if People or Property Are Harmed by the Products We Sell or Manufacture
Some of the products we sell or manufacture may expose us to product liability or food safety claims relating to personal injury or illness, death, or environmental or property damage, and may require product recalls or other actions. Certain third parties also sell products using our e-commerce services that may increase our exposure to product liability claims, such as if these sellers do not have sufficient protection from such claims. Although we maintain liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all. In addition, some of our agreements with our vendors and sellers do not indemnify us from product liability.
We Are Subject to Payments-Related Risks
We accept payments using a variety of methods, including credit card, debit card, credit accounts (including promotional financing), gift cards, direct debit from a customer’s bank account, consumer invoicing, physical bank check, and payment upon delivery. For existing and future payment options we offer to our customers, we may become subject to additional regulations and compliance requirements (including obligations to implement enhanced authentication processes that could result in significant costs and reduce the ease of use of our payments products), as well as fraud. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower profitability. We rely on third parties to provide certain Amazon-branded payment methods and payment processing services, including the processing of credit cards, debit cards, electronic checks, and promotional financing. In each case, it could disrupt our business if these companies become unwilling or unable to provide these services to us. We also offer co-branded credit card programs, which could adversely affect our operating results if terminated. We are also subject to payment card association operating rules, including data security rules, certification requirements, and rules governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, or if our data security systems are breached or compromised, we may be liable for card issuing banks’ costs, subject to fines and higher transaction fees, and lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments from our customers, process electronic funds transfers, or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
In addition, we provide regulated services in certain jurisdictions because we enable customers to keep account balances with us and transfer money to third parties, and because we provide services to third parties to facilitate payments on their behalf. In these jurisdictions, we may be subject to requirements for licensing, regulatory inspection, bonding and capital maintenance, the use, handling, and segregation of transferred funds, consumer disclosures, and authentication. We are also subject to or voluntarily comply with a number of other laws and regulations relating to payments, money laundering, international money transfers, privacy and information security, and electronic fund transfers. If we were found to be in violation of applicable laws or regulations, we could be subject to additional requirements and civil and criminal penalties, or forced to cease providing certain services.
We Could Be Liable for Fraudulent or Unlawful Activities of Sellers
The law relating to the liability of providers of online payment services is currently unsettled. In addition, governmental agencies could require changes in the way this business is conducted. Under our seller programs, we may be unable to prevent sellers from collecting payments, fraudulently or otherwise, when buyers never receive the products they ordered or when the products received are materially different from the sellers’ descriptions. Under our A2Z Guarantee, we reimburse buyers for payments up to certain limits in these situations, and as our third-party seller sales grow, the cost of this program will increase and could negatively affect our operating results. We also may be unable to prevent sellers on our sites or through other seller sites from selling unlawful goods, selling goods in an unlawful manner, or violating the proprietary rights of others, and could face civil or criminal liability for unlawful activities by our sellers.



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Item 2.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
None.

Item 3.
Defaults Upon Senior Securities
None.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

Item 5.
Other Information

Disclosure Pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Exchange Act
We determined that, between January 2012 and March 2018, we processed and delivered orders of consumer products for certain individuals and entities located outside Iran covered by the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act (“ITRA”), in addition to those we have previously disclosed, as follows: consumer products valued at approximately $1,600 for an Iranian embassy located in a country other than Iran; consumer products valued at approximately $14,200 for individuals who may have been acting for 13 Iranian embassies located in countries other than Iran; consumer products valued at approximately $600 for individuals who may have been acting for three entities owned or controlled by the Iranian government; consumer products valued at approximately $1,900 for four individuals who are designated under Executive Order 13224; and consumer products valued at approximately $2,300 for individuals who may have been acting for four individuals and entities designated under Executive Order 13224. The consumer products included books, other media, apparel, home and kitchen, jewelry, office, toys, health and beauty, consumer electronics, lawn and patio, automotive, musical instruments, software, grocery, and pet products. We are unable to accurately calculate the net profit attributable to these transactions. We do not plan to continue selling to these accounts in the future. Our review is ongoing and we are enhancing our processes designed to identify transactions associated with individuals and entities covered by the ITRA.


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Item 6.
Exhibits
Exhibit
Number
 
Description
 
 
 
3.1
 
 
 
 
3.2
 
 
 
 
31.1
 
 
 
 
31.2
 
 
 
 
32.1
 
 
 
 
32.2
 
 
 
 
101
 
The following financial statements from the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018, formatted in XBRL: (i) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, (ii) Consolidated Statements of Operations, (iii) Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income, (iv) Consolidated Balance Sheets, and (v) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, tagged as blocks of text and including detailed tags.


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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
AMAZON.COM, INC. (REGISTRANT)
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Shelley L. Reynolds
 
 
Shelley L. Reynolds
 
 
Vice President, Worldwide Controller
 
 
(Principal Accounting Officer)
Dated: April 26, 2018




Exhibit


Exhibit 31.1
CERTIFICATIONS
I, Jeffrey P. Bezos, certify that:
1. I have reviewed this Form 10-Q of Amazon.com, Inc.;
2. Based on my knowledge, this report does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which such statements were made, not misleading with respect to the period covered by this report;
3. Based on my knowledge, the financial statements, and other financial information included in this report, fairly present in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the registrant as of, and for, the periods presented in this report;
4. The registrant’s other certifying officer(s) and I are responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) and internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) for the registrant and have:
(a) Designed such disclosure controls and procedures, or caused such disclosure controls and procedures to be designed under our supervision, to ensure that material information relating to the registrant, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to us by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which this report is being prepared;
(b) Designed such internal control over financial reporting, or caused such internal control over financial reporting to be designed under our supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;
(c) Evaluated the effectiveness of the registrant’s disclosure controls and procedures and presented in this report our conclusions about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures, as of the end of the period covered by this report based on such evaluation; and
(d) Disclosed in this report any change in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the registrant’s most recent fiscal quarter (the registrant’s fourth fiscal quarter in the case of an annual report) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting; and
5. The registrant’s other certifying officer(s) and I have disclosed, based on our most recent evaluation of internal control over financial reporting, to the registrant’s auditors and the audit committee of the registrant’s board of directors (or persons performing the equivalent functions):
(a) All significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting which are reasonably likely to adversely affect the registrant’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and
(b) Any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
/s/ Jeffrey P. Bezos
 
Jeffrey P. Bezos
 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
Date: April 26, 2018

Exhibit


Exhibit 31.2
CERTIFICATIONS
I, Brian T. Olsavsky, certify that:
1. I have reviewed this Form 10-Q of Amazon.com, Inc.;
2. Based on my knowledge, this report does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which such statements were made, not misleading with respect to the period covered by this report;
3. Based on my knowledge, the financial statements, and other financial information included in this report, fairly present in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the registrant as of, and for, the periods presented in this report;
4. The registrant’s other certifying officer(s) and I are responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) and internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) for the registrant and have:
(a) Designed such disclosure controls and procedures, or caused such disclosure controls and procedures to be designed under our supervision, to ensure that material information relating to the registrant, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to us by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which this report is being prepared;
(b) Designed such internal control over financial reporting, or caused such internal control over financial reporting to be designed under our supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;
(c) Evaluated the effectiveness of the registrant’s disclosure controls and procedures and presented in this report our conclusions about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures, as of the end of the period covered by this report based on such evaluation; and
(d) Disclosed in this report any change in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the registrant’s most recent fiscal quarter (the registrant’s fourth fiscal quarter in the case of an annual report) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting; and
5. The registrant’s other certifying officer(s) and I have disclosed, based on our most recent evaluation of internal control over financial reporting, to the registrant’s auditors and the audit committee of the registrant’s board of directors (or persons performing the equivalent functions):
(a) All significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting which are reasonably likely to adversely affect the registrant’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and
(b) Any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
/s/ Brian T. Olsavsky
 
Brian T. Olsavsky
 
Senior Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer
 
(Principal Financial Officer)
Date: April 26, 2018

Exhibit


Exhibit 32.1
Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350
In connection with the Quarterly Report of Amazon.com, Inc. (the “Company”) on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on or about the date hereof (the “Report”), I, Jeffrey P. Bezos, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company, certify, pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, that:
(1) The Report fully complies with the requirements of Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
(2) The information contained in the Report fairly presents, in all material respects, the financial condition and results of operations of the Company.
A signed original of this written statement has been provided to the Company and will be retained by the Company and furnished to the SEC or its staff upon request.

 
/s/ Jeffrey P. Bezos
 
Jeffrey P. Bezos
 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
Date: April 26, 2018

Exhibit


Exhibit 32.2
Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350
In connection with the Quarterly Report of Amazon.com, Inc. (the “Company”) on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on or about the date hereof (the “Report”), I, Brian T. Olsavsky, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company, certify, pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, that:
(1) The Report fully complies with the requirements of Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
(2) The information contained in the Report fairly presents, in all material respects, the financial condition and results of operations of the Company.
A signed original of this written statement has been provided to the Company and will be retained by the Company and furnished to the SEC or its staff upon request.
 
 
/s/ Brian T. Olsavsky
 
Brian T. Olsavsky
 
Senior Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer
 
(Principal Financial Officer)
Date: April 26, 2018